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psych ch8 vocab

psychology

QuestionAnswer
sensations the stimulation of sensory receptors and the transmission of sensory information to the brain
perception the organization and interpretation of sensory information into meaningful experiences
psycho-physics the study of the relationships between sensory experiences and the physical stimuli that cause them
absolute threshold the weakest amount of a stimulus that a person can detect half the time
difference threshold the smallest change in a physical stimulus that can be detected between two stimuli
weber's law a psycho-physics law stating that for any changes in a stimulus to be detected, a constant proportion of that stimulus must be added or subtracted
signal-detection theory the study of a people's tendencies to make correct judgments, misses, and false alarms in detecting the presence of stimuli
pupil the opening in the iris that regulates the amount of light entering the eye
lens a flexible, elastic, transparent oval structure in the eye that changes its shape to focus light on the retina; the lens is attached to muscles that adjust the curve of the lens, which in turn adjust the focus
retina the light-sensitive innermost coating of the back of the eye that contains the rods, cones, and neurons that process visual stimuli
optic nerve the nerve that carries impulses from the retina to the brain
binocular fusion the process of combining the images received from the two eyes into a single, fused image
retinal disparity a binocular cue for perceiving depth based on the differences between the images stimulating each eye
auditory nerve the nerve that carries impulses from the inner ear to the brain, resulting in the perception of sound
vestibular system three semicircular canals located in the inner ear that provide the sense of balance
olfactory nerve the nerve that transmits information about odors from the nose to the brain
kines-thesis the sense that provides information about the position and movement of individual body parts
gestalt the experience that comes from organizing bits and pieces of information into meaningful wholes
subliminal messages brief auditory or visual messages that are presented below the absolute threshold so that their chance of perception is less than 50 percent
motion parallax the apparent movement of stationary objects relative to one another that occurs when the observer changes position
constancy the tendency to perceive certain objects in the same way regardless of changing angle, distance, or lighting
illusions perceptions that misrepresent physical stimuli
extrasensory perception (ESP) a group of psychic experiences that involves perceiving or sending information outside normal sensory processes pr channels; includes four general abilities: telepathy, precognition, clairvoyance, and psychokinesis
Created by: lizhopper2