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Psychology.Chapter10

Behavior in Social and Cultural Context

QuestionAnswer
Rules that regulate social life, including explicit laws and implicit cultural conventions Norms
A given social position that is governed by a set of norms for proper behavior Role
A program of shared rules that govern the behavior of members of a community or society, and a set of values, beliefs, and attitudes shared by most members of that community Culture
a gradual process in which individuals escalate their commitment to a course of action to justify their investment of time, money, or effort Entrapment
An area in social psychology concerned with social influences on thought, memory, perception, and beliefs Social Cognition
The theory that people are motivated to explain their own and other people's behavior by attributing causes of that behavior to a situation or a disposition Attribution Theory
The tendency, in explaining other people's behavior, to overestimate personality factors and underestimate the influence of the situation Fundamental Attribution error
The tendency, in explaining one's own behavior, to take credit for one's good actions and rationalize one's mistakes Self-Serving Bias
The notion that many people need to believe that the world is fair and that justice is served, that bad people are punished and good people are rewarded Just-World Hypothesis
A belief about people. groups, ideas or activities Attitude
Attitudes we are aware of Explicit
Attitudes we are unaware of Implicit
The study of how social roles, attitudes, relationships, and groups influence people to do things they would not necessarily do on their own- to act bravely, compassionately, aggressively, or even savagely Social Psychology
The study of the broader influence of culture and ethnicity on roles and relationships in society Cultural Psychology
Draws upon technologies from neuroscience to study the emotional and social processes underlying beliefs, prejudices and social behavior Social Cognitive Neuroscience
When we identify the cause of an action as something in the situation or environment Situational Attribution
When we identify the cause of an action as something in the person, such as a trait or a motive Dispositional Attribution
A state of tension that occurs when a person simultaneously holds two cognitions that are psychologically inconsistent or when a person's belief is incongruent with his or her behavior Cognitive Dissonance
The tendency of people to feel more positive toward a person, item, product or other stimulus that they have seen often Familiarity Effect
The tendency of people to believe that a statement is true or valid simply because it has been repeated many times Validity Effect
In close-knit groups, the tendency to for all members to think alike for the sake of harmony and to suppress disagreement Groupthink
In groups, the tendency of members to avoid taking action because they assume others will Diffusion of Responsibility
In crowds, when someone is in trouble, individuals often fail to take action or call for help because they assume that someone else will do so. Bystander Apathy
Each member of a team slows down, letting others work harder Social Loafing
In groups or crowds, the loss of awareness of one's own individuality Deindividuation
The willingness to take selfless or dangerous action on behalf of others Altruism
The part of person's self concept that is based on his or her identification with a nation, religious or political group, or other social affiliation Social Identity
A person's identification with a religious or ethnic group Ethnic Identity
The process by which members of minority groups come to identify with and feel part of the mainstream culture Acculturation
People who have strong ties both to their ethnicity and to the larger culture: They say, "I am proud of my heritage, but i identify just as much with my country" Bicultural Identity
People who have weak feelings of ethnicity but a strong sense of acculturation: Their attitude, for example might be, "I'm an American, period." Assimilation Identity
People who have a strong sense of ethnic identity but weak feelings of acculturation Ethnic Separatist Identity
People connected to neither their ethnicity nor the dominant culture: They may not want to identify with any ethnic or national group, or they feel that they don't belong anywhere Marginal Identity
The belief that one's own ethnic group, nation, or religion is superior to all others Ethnocentrism
A summary impression of a group, in which a person believes that all members of the group share a common trait or traits (positive, negative, or neutral) Stereotype
A negative stereotype and a strong, unreasonable dislike or hatred of a group Prejudice
Measures the speed of people’s positive and negative associations to a target group Implicit Association Test
Prejudice declines when people have the chance to get used to one another's rules, food, music, customs, and attitudes, thereby discovering their shared interests and shared humanity Contact Hypothesis
Created by: elyk01