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Motivation

Psychology Chapter 12

QuestionAnswer
What are the four motives of motivation? Hunger, Sex, Belonging, Achievement at work (Have Some Bad Accidents)
What are two Human instincts? Rooting and Sucking
What was instinct theory replaced by? Drive Reduction Theory
What does Drive Reduction Theory state? A psychological need creates an arousal state that drives an organism to reduce the need by eating or drinking
Why did George Mallory climb Mount Everest? Because it was there
What’s the base of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs? Physiological Needs
What’s the order of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs from the bottom? Physiological Needs, Safety Needs, Need to Belong, Esteem Needs, Self Actualization (Please Shoot Buttholes Everywhere Soon)
What is a hunger arousing hormone secreted by an empty stomach? Ghrelin
What brings on hunger? Lateral Hypothalamus
What hormone does the lateral hypothalamus produce? Orexin
What depresses hunger? Ventromedial Hypothalamus
What does the hypothalamus monitor? Levels of Leptin
What is leptin? A protein produced by bloated fat cells
Hormone secreted by the pancreas; controls blood glucose? Insulin
How do you regulate weight? Food intake and energy output
What are the intervals an average person swallows? 14 seconds
How many average chews per swallow are there? 19 times per swallow
What influence our taste preference? Body chemistry and environmental factors
What boost the levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin? Carbohydrates
Are sweet and salty taste preferences conditioned or genetic? Genetic; All others are conditioned
How does Anorexia typically begin? As a weight loss diet
Amenorrhea The absence of at least three consecutive menstrual cycles
During the current episode of Anorexia Nervosa, the person has not regularly engaged in binge eating or purging behavior Restricting Type
During the current episode of Anorexia Nervosa, the person has regularly engaged in binge eating or purging behavior Binge Eating/Purging Type
How does Bulimia typically begin? After a dieter has broken a diet and gorged and has self induced vomiting
During the current episode of Bulimia Nervosa, the person has regularly engaged in self induced vomiting or the misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas? Purging Type
During the current episode of Bulimia Nervosa the person has used other inappropriate compensatory behaviors such as fasting or excessive exercise, but has not regularly engaged in self induced purging Non Purging Type
Who set out in his experiment to find out what normal sexual behavior looked like Alfred Kinsley
What fraction of married men/married women have affairs? 2/3 ; ½
What percentage of married adults claim to have had sex only with their spouse during their present marriage? 84%
Who monitored more than 10,000 sexual cycles? William Masters and Virginia Johnson
What are the four stages of the sexual response cycle? Excitement, Plateau, Orgasm, Resolution
Genital Areas become engorged with blood? Excitement stage
Excitement peaks as breathing, pulse, and blood pressure rates continue to increase Plateau phase
Further increase in breathing, pulse and blood pressure rates Orgasm Phase
Body gradually returns to its unaroused state in which the blood is released from the genital area Resolution Phase
Inability to maintain an erection Erectile Disorder
Infrequently or never experiencing orgasm orgasmic Disorder
What is the key hormone for sex? Testosterone
Is sex a need? No
Can you still feel sexual desire with a spinal cord injury? Yes
What percentage of men and women have dreams that lead to orgasm? 40%
What percentage of the US 9th 12th graders report having had sexual intercourse? 50%
What are some causes of pregnancy? Sexual related guilt, Alcohol use, Ignorance What is the abortion fate for the US?
Who delays in having sex? Intelligent people, Religious people, Helpful people What percent of new infections occur in people under the age of 25?
Is Homosexuality psychological? No
Who discovered the Fraternal Birth Order Effect? Blanchard
What is the fraternal birth order effect? The odds of becoming homosexual are roughly 3% among first sons, 4% for second sons, etc
What is a brain difference between straight and gay men? Hypothalamus cell cluster is slightly smaller in gays
Can sexual attraction in male fruit flies be genetically manipulated? Yes
Is shared sexual orientation higher among fraternal or identical twins? Identical
What can lead to homosexuality? Altered prenatal hormone exposure
What did Aristotle refer to humans as? The social animal
Who believed humans have an urge to community? Alfred Alder
Breaks in social bonds can cause what? Psychological distress
What three things does work satisfy? It supports, connects, and defines us
What three POV can a job be seen as? Job, Career, Calling
What does flow with an activity mean? To be completely absorbed in that activity that fully engages your skills
What percentage of people feel like they are matched to the right job? 20%
What is the best predictor of job performance? General Mental Ability
What is an interviewer illusion? Tending to overrate their interviewing skills
What can be gained from an interview? Personality traits
What is a structured interview? An interview where there is a disciplined method of collecting information
What is a performance appraisal? Decide who to keep on as an employee, how to reward them, and how to promote
What do performance appraisals include? Checklist, Graphic rating scales, and behavior rate scales
What is a Halo Error? One trait of an employee biases ratings of their specific work related behaviors
What are leniency and severity errors? The evaluator can be too harsh or to easy on everyone
What is a Recency error? Rater focuses on one easily remembered behavior
What is the key tool in achievement? Motivation
What is Achievement motivation? The desire for significant accomplishment
What is a top priority for IO psychologist? Employee satisfaction
What do effective leaders do? Harness job relevant strengths, Set goals, and choose an appropriate leadership style
According to Kenneth Tucker, great managers do what? Help people identify and measure their talents; Match tasks to talents; Care about how they feel; and Positively reinforce behavior
What is task leadership? Being the type of leader that does stuff
What is social leadership? Being a leader that specializes in mediating conflicts and building high achieving teams
What is Theory X? Managers assume that workers are basically lazy, error prone, and motivated by money
What is Theory Y? Managers assume that workers are motivated to work beyond money
Created by: saxplayer2011