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Hofestede Culture def. culture is the collective programming of the mid that distinguishes the members of a group or category of people from others
Power Distance Degree to which members of a national culture automatically accept a hierarchal or unequal distribution of power in organizations and the society
Uncertainty Avoidance Degree to which members of a given national culture deal with the uncertainty and risk of everyday life and prefer to work with long-term acquaintances and friends rather than with strangers
Masculinity degree to which a national culture looks favorably on aggressive and materialistic behavior
Individualism and Collectivism degree to which individuals in a given national culture perceive themselves as separate from others and free from group pressures to conform
Time Orientation degree to which members of a national culture would defer gratification to achieve long-term success (short-term-->long-term)
Subjective Culture Characteristic way of perceiving its social environment (Categories and assc, beliefs, attitudes, norms, roles, tasks, values, value orientation
Categories analyzing the categories that people use
Categories have associations emic associations
Beliefs link among categories
Attitudes ideas charged with affect (emotion) predisposing action
Norms ideas about behavior expected of members of a group
Roles Ideas about the correct behavior of people who hold a position in a social group
Tasks sequence of behaviors
Values conceptions of the desirable state of affairs
Value orientation more abstract set of values
Emic -culture specific concepts -Insider approach ex: used when describing cultures -focuses on a single culture -within the system -anthropology
Etic -universal or culture general concepts -outsider ex: used when comparing cultures -looks at several cultures -outside the system
Ethnocentrism tendency to judge other people and cultures by the standards of one's own culture & to believe that the behaviors, customs, norms, & other characteristics of one's own group are natural, valid, and correct while others are unnatural, invalid, & incorrect
Ethnorelativism The experience of one's own belief and behaviors are just one organization of reality among many viable possibilities
6 Stages of development of intercultural sensitivity -Denial -defense -minimization -acceptance -adaptation -integration
Denial Ignorance is accepted
Defense able to perceive cultural differences, different=wrong
Minimization everyone is the same...as me
Acceptance people know their own cultural identity and accept others cultural identities
Adaptation intercultural empathy
Integration Identity is fluid, not necessarily better than adaptation
Cultural Craziness -Culture is implicated in the expression and experience of psych pathology
Psychological Disorder a rare impairment
Cultural Bounde-syndromes syndromes that appear to be greatly influenced by cultural factors, and hence occur far less frequently, or are manifested highly divergent ways, in other cultures Ex: eating disorders, voodoo death, hikkimori, amok, susto
Universal syndromes Depression social anxiety disorder suicide schizophrenia
Cultural limitations of psychotherapy -psychotherapy is inescapably bound to a particular cultural framework -there can be non value-free psychotherapy -barriers to seeking treatment
Four social functions of humor -Meaning making -Hierarchy building -cohesion building -tension relief
Meaning Making mechanisms for defining reality
Hierarchy Building a compatible but more narrow version of meaning-making functions of humor is the proposal that joking creates status differentiation ("serves to help structure local interaction hierarchies)
Cohesion Building is used for interpersonal emotion management. -Used as an equalizer and harmonizer
Tension Relief -Humor as a stress-reducing tool. -In task oriented groups it: helps accomplish group goals and maintain smooth relations
Humor in Advertisement Humor is one of the most widely employed message techniques in modern advertising
Humor in counseling humor helps gain pleasure despite painful effects which disturb it, acts as a substitute
Hofestede 5 Dimensions in humor -Individualism vs collectivism -Hierarchy -Aggression & Gender -Otherness & Truth -Long-term vs Short-term
Individualism vs collectivism expect jokes as self-contained units should be more prevalent among individualistic societies. Collectivistic societies would tend to adopt more implicit and contextual forms of humor
Hierarchy by definition, a joke is a fictious story that carries no relationship with the real world. Autocratic leaders fear the force of humor
Aggression & Gender expect masculine societies to joke at the expense of women or of men in positions subordinate to women
Otherness & Truth uncertainty avoidance most affects the context of jokes -one would expect jokes to be made about them unless socially taboo topics
Long-term vs. Short term short term is about living for the day, long term is about planning the present for long-term goals
Jokes as ethnography many jokes are told about national stereo-types & they enjoy great popularity (serve as reinforcement of stereo-types) -jokes carry culture. are a form of folk tales.
Il Tragic-comico most appreciated humor in Italy it points out the absurdities and ironies in daily life. -Italian humor grounded in reality ex: poverty, old age, death, sickness, hunger, misery
Hofestede Personality big 5 -Openness to experience -Conscientiousness - Extraversion -Agreeableness -Neuroticism
Openness to experience inventive/ curious vs. consistent/cautious
Conscientiousness efficient/organized vs. easy-going/careless
Extraversion outgoing/energetic vs. solitary/reserved
Agreeableness friendly/compassionate vs. cold/unkind
Neuroticism sensitive/nervous vs secure/confident
Sociocultural approach cognitive development as progressive increase of contexts experienced by child. forming a base of his/her representation of knowledge
Knowledge Era Dramatic increase of the importance of literacy as an ingredient of economic and social participation
P.I.S.A program for international student assessment. -every 3yrs accesses how much students have learned -measures: mathematical, scientific, reading literacy, and problem solving
Psychotherapy biggest tool used by psychologists to improve the life of abnormal behavior disorders-whose lives are dysfunctional
Triandis-culture def Is a shared pattern of beliefs, attitudes, norms, role perceptions, and values
10 sets of values -self-direction -stimulation -hedonism -achievement -power -security -conformity -tradition -benevolence -universalism
Self-direction creativity, freedom, choosing own goals, curiosity
Stimulation a varied life, an excited life, daring
Hedonism pleasure, enjoying life
Achievement ambitious, successful, capable
Power authority, wealth, social recognition
Security social order, clean, healthy, sense of belonging
Conformity obedient, self-disciplined, politeness
Tradition respect for tradition, humble, devout
Benevolence helpful, loyal, forgiving
Universalism broad minded, social justice, world of beauty
Value Orientation -Innate human nature -Man nature -Modality of human activities
Innate human nature which can be evil, neutral, a mixture of good and bad, or good, mutable or immutable
Man nature can involve subjugation to, harmony with, or mastery over nature
Modality of human activities emphasis on being (cherishing the experience) being-in, becoming, (changing, growing, self-actualization)
Created by: 1084680082