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Ch. 9

cognition (thinking) refer to all the mental activities associtated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
concepts mental groupings of similar objects, events, and people.
prototype a mental image or best example of a category. matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories.
algorithm a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particularproblem. contrasts with the usually speedier but also more error prone use heuristics.
insight a suddend and often novel realization of th esolution to a probem; it contrasts with strategy based solutions.
conformation bias a tendency to search for info that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence.
fixation the inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a differnt mental set.
mental set a tendency to approach a problem one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past.
functional fixedness the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving.
reprsentativeness heuristic judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant info.
availability heuritic estimationg the likelihood of events based on their availablity in memory.
overconfidence the tendency to be more confident than correct-to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgements.
belief persverance clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
intution an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning.
framing the waay an issue is posed: how an issue is framed an significantly affect decisions and judgments.
language our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning.
phoneme in languages, the smallest distinctive sound unit.
morpheme in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning;may be a word or part of a word.
grammar in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others.
semantics the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language, also, the study of meaning.
syntax the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentensces in a given lanugage.
babbling stage beginning at aobut 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant sponataneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language.
one-word stage the stage in speech development, from aobut age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words.
two-word stage beginning at about 2, during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements
telegraphic speech early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram-go car- using mostly nounds and verbs.
aphasia impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage eirther to Broca's area or to Wernicke's area.
Broca's area controls language expression-an area of the frontal lobe, usually left hemisphers, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
Wernicke's area controls language reception-a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe.
linguistic determinism Whorf's hypothesis that language dermines the way we think.
intelligence test a method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores.
intelligence mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.
general intelligence (g) a general intelligence factor that, according to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test
factor analysis a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related item on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie a person't total score.
savant syndrome a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing.
creativity the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.
emotional intelligence the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions.
mental age a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance.
Stanford-Binet the widely used American revision of Binet's original intelligence test.
intelligence quotient (IQ) defined originally as the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100. On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assgned a score of 100.
achievement tests a test designed to assess what a person has learned.
aptitude tests a test designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn.
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)(WISC) for children the WAIS is the most widely sed intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests.
standardization defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group.
normal curve the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. most scores fall near the averag, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes.
reliability the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, or on retesting.
validity the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to.
content validity the extent to which a test samples the behaivor that is of interest.
predictive validity the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assess by computing the correlation between test score and the criterion behavior.
mental retardation a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demand of life; varies from mild to profound.
Down syndrome a condition of retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21.
stereotype threat a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on negative sterotype.
Created by: JLee13
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