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RADT308-Intro to rad

Covers first unit of positioning for radiology students

QuestionAnswer
35 x 43 cm is also known as what field size? 14x17
24 x 30 cm is also known as what field size 10x12
30 x 35 cm is also known as what field size 11x14
____________ is the patient dose category that has the highest numerical value skin entrance exposure
cardinal principles of radiation protection time, distance, shielding
Annual effective dose limit for a technologist for whole body exposure 5 rem
unit of radiation exposure in air roentgen
unit of patient radiation exposure rad
unit of occupational exposure rem
unit of radioactivity curie
reduction in the x-ray intensity due to scattering and absorption attenuation
____________ is the patient dose category that has the highest numerical value skin entrance exposure
cardinal principles of radiation protection time, distance, shielding
Annual effective dose limit for a technologist for whole body exposure 5 rem
Imaging modality utilizing phosphor imaging plates that must be processed in a separate device computed radiography
unit of radiation exposure in air roentgen
unit of patient radiation exposure rad
unit of occupational exposure rem
The amount of the imaging plate that must be exposed when using CR 30%
unit of radioactivity curie
xray energy/quality kV
xray quantity/intensity mAs
basic structural unit of all living tissue cell
reduction in the x-ray intensity due to scattering and absorption attenuation
these combine to form tissues cells
ALARA stands for as low as reasonably achievable
four types of tissues epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous
PACS stands for picture archival communication system
these combine to form organs tissues
these combine to form systems organs
type of digital imaging that utilizes DELs to directly capture and transform x-ray photons into a digital image flat panel detector (FPD) or TFT arrays
these combine to form an organism systems
The amount of the imaging plate that must be exposed when using CR 30%
four functions of the skeletal system support and protect, allow movement, produce blood cells, store calcium
CR imaging plates are _____ (more/less) sensitive to scatter than more
study of bones osteology
exposure factor primarily controls the number of photons in an x-ray beam mAs
study of joints arthrology
system that distributes oxygen to cells and transports wastes from cells circulatory
primarily controls the contrast of a radiograph (analog imaging) kV
system responsible for absorption of nutrients and elimiation of solid waste digestive
basic structural unit of all living tissue cell
these combine to form tissues cells
system that regulates chemical composition of blood and eliminates waste products urinary
four types of tissues epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous
system that reproduces the organism reproductive
these combine to form organs tissues
system that regulates body activities nervous
these combine to form systems organs
system that allows for movement, maintains posture and produces heat muscular
these combine to form an organism systems
four functions of the skeletal system support and protect, allow movement, produce blood cells, store calcium
system that protects the body and eliminates waste through perspiration integumentary
number of bones in the adult human body 206
all bones that lie in or near the central axis of the body axial
study of bones osteology
all bones of the upper and lower limbs as well as the shoulder and pelvic girdle appendicular
study of joints arthrology
type of bone that has a body and two ends long
system that distributes oxygen to cells and transports wastes from cells circulatory
system responsible for absorption of nutrients and elimiation of solid waste digestive
type of bone that is found in the skull, sternum, rib and scapula flat
system that supplies oxygen and eliminates carbon dioxide respiratory
process of bone development ossification
system that regulates chemical composition of blood and eliminates waste products urinary
primary center for bone growth diaphysis
secondary center epipysis
system that reproduces the organism reproductive
system that regulates body activities nervous
joint structure classification of being held together by fibrous tissue fibrous
system that allows for movement, maintains posture and produces heat muscular
joint structure classification of being held together by cartilage cartilaginous
system that regulates body hormones endocrine
joint structure classification by which the joint is incased in a synovial fluid capsule synovial
system that protects the body and eliminates waste through perspiration integumentary
joint function classification of immovable synarthroidal
all bones that lie in or near the central axis of the body axial
joint function classification of limited movement amphiarthroidial
all bones of the upper and lower limbs as well as the shoulder and pelvic girdle appendicular
joint function classification of freely moveable diarthrodial
type of bone that has a body and two ends long
type of bone that is cuboidal short
type of bone that is found in the skull, sternum, rib and scapula flat
peculiar shaped bones irregular
process of bone development ossification
primary center for bone growth diaphysis
secondary center epipysis
cartilage plate that is present until bone growth is complete epipyseal plate
joint structure classification of being held together by fibrous tissue fibrous
joint structure classification of being held together by cartilage cartilaginous
joint structure classification by which the joint is incased in a synovial fluid capsule synovial
joint function classification of immovable synarthroidal
joint function classification of limited movement amphiarthroidial
joint function classification of freely moveable diarthrodial
refers to the cnter-most portion of the x-ray beam emitted from the x-ray tube central ray
radiographs are displayed in this position anatomic
imaging plane dividing left from right sagittal
imaging plane dividing superior from inferior transverse, horizontal or axial
imaging plane dividing anterior from posterior coronal
another term for posterior dorsal
another term for anterior ventral
the top of the foot is known as the ______ dorsum or dorsal surface
the sole of the foot is known as the _____ plantar surface
Patient lying face up on the imaging table supine
patient lying face down on the imaging table pronde
patient lying down recumbent
patient laying on side on imaging table lateral recumbent
upright position erect
recumbent position with head lower than feet trendelenburg
recumbent position with feet lower than head fowler's
recumbent oblique position with patient on left side with right knee and thigh flexed Sim's
recumbent position with knees and hip flexed and thighs abducted and rotated externally supported by ankle supports lithotomy
patient lying supine with horizontal beam dorsal decubitis
patient lying on left side with horizontal beam left lateral decubitis
patient lying on right side with horizontal beam right lateral decubitis
patient lying prone with horizontal beam ventral decubitis
projection of CR where the beam enters the posterior surface and exits the anterior surface PA
projection of the CR whereby the beam enters the anterior surface and exits the posterior surface AP
projection of the CR whereby the beam enters the medial surface and exits the lateral surface mediolateral
projection of the CR whereby the beam enters the lateral surface and exits the medial surface lateromedial
projection of the CR that possesses an angle of 10 degrees or more along the long axis of the body or part axial
projection of the CR that merely skims a body part to project it into profile and away from other body structures tangential
projection of the CR that enters below the chin and exits the vertex submentovertex (SMV)
toward the center medial
away from center lateral
near source or beginning proximal
away from source or beginning distal
to angle towards the head cephalad
to angle towards the feet caudal
turn body part on its axis rotate
slanting movement with respect ot long axis tilt
minimum number of markers that must be on every radiographic image two
what type of markers must be on every radiographic image patient ID, anatomic side
exceptions to the minimum two projections rule of positioning protable chest, ap abdomen, ap pelvis
minimum number of projections for positioning and radiographic imaging two
minimum number of projections for positioning when joints are involved three
long bones (forearm, humerus, femur, hips, tib fib) typically require how many projections? two
terminates the exposure when sufficient radiation has reached the ionization chamber AEC
overall amount of blackness on a radiograph (analog imaging) density
small oval shaped bones found in tendons sesmoid
examples of synovial joints hip, elbow, radioulnar, intermetacarpal, intercarpal, interphalangeal, shoulder, knee, TMJ, ankle
to turn palm facing up supination
to turn palm facing down pronation
foriegn body imaging exams require how many projections (minimum) two
Increasing kV by 15% will have the same effect as doubling the mAs. This is known as what rule? 15% rule
the amount of time generally used in diagnostic radiography for the exposure of an image is in what measurement unit? milliseconds
positioning an AP thoracic spine with the superior aspect under the anode side of the x-ray tube is utilizing the _______________. anode heel effect
low kV gives you this scale of contrast (analog imaging) short
high kV gives you this scale of contrast (analog imaging) long
short scale contrast is also known as _____ contrast. high
long scale contrast is also known as _____ contrast. low
spatial resolution is most directly affected by what? focal spot size or matrix/pixel size
shorter SID will ______ distortion increase
ability of a digital imaging system to distinguish between similar tissues contrast resolution
bit depth is related to ____ of an image contrast resolution
number of x-rays that strike an image receptor signal
random disturbance that oscures or reduces clarity noise
intensity of light that represents the individual pixels in the image on the monitor brightness
a high SNR will have _____ noise less
signal (receptor exposure) is controlled greatly by this mAs
_____ refers to an image receptor aligned crosswise to the anatomy landscape
_____ refers to an image receptor aligned lengthwise to the anatomy portrait
filters out a portion of the primary beam toward the thin or less dense part of the body being imaged compensating filter
used to absorb scatter photons that we don't want on the image grid
the grid must remain completely ______ to the x-ray beam path perpendicular
type of grid that has a specified SID to be used with it focused
reason for grid cutoff with a loss of receptor exposure at the periphery of the image upside-down grid
two types of motion voluntary, involuntary
type of motion controlled by the patient voluntary
a numeric value that is representative of the exposure an image receptor received in digital imaging exposure index
Cumulative dose limit for occupationally exposed workers 1 rem x age
general population dose limit 0.1 rem
minimum lead equivalent thickness worn during a fluoroscopy procedure 0.5 mm
Created by: hschmuck1