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3590 exam

QuestionAnswer
Learning? A relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs through experience
positive punishment adds unwelcomed consequence
Systematic desensitization an anxiety-reducing method attained by associating deep relaxation with successive visualizations of increasingly anxiety-provoking situation E.g., eliminating phobias
Observational Learning Attention, Retention, Motor Reproduction, Reinforcement or incentive conditions
Thinking manipulating and transforming information in memory, often to from concepts. reason, think critically and solve problems
concepts categories used to group objects, events and characteristics based on common properties
interference theory theory that suggest we forget when other information getting in the way of what we are trying to remember vs losing memories from storage
Atkinson-Shiffrin model states that memory involves a sequence of three stages: sensory memory, short-term memory (working memory) and long-term memory.
Declarative memory or explicit memory the conscious recollection of information, such as specific facts or events that can be verbally communicated.
Procedural memory or implicit memory knowledge in the form of skills and cognitive operations.
episodic memory the retention of information about the where and when of life's happenings
Semantic memory Student's general knowledge about the world
Semantic and episodic memory match with Declarative (explicit)
script a schema for an event
Retrieval: Serial position effect Recall is better for items at the beginning and end of a list that for items in the middle
Primacy effect items at the beginning of a list tend to be remembered
recency effect items at the end of a list tend to be remembered
Forgetting: Cue-dependent forgetting retrieval failure caused by a lack of effective retrieval cues
inductive reasoning reasoning from the specific to the general
deductive reasoning reasoning from the general to the specific
Critically thinking thinking reflectively and productively and evaluating the evidence
algorithms strategies that guarantee a solution to a problem ie, formulas, instructions, and tests
Heuristics strategies or guidelines that can suggest a solution to a problem by do not guarantee a solution
Near transfer transfer the occurs when situations are very similar
Far transfer transfer of learning to a situation that is very different from the one in which the initial learning took place
Low-road transfer transfer that occurs when previous leaning is transferred to another situation automatically and often unconsciously
high-road transfer transfer that is conscious and effortful
Metacongnitive knowledge monitoring and reflecting on one's current or recent thoughts
meracognitive activity consciously adaptiing and managing thinking stragegies during problem solving and purposeful thinkign
Created by: jgiraudy