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FlatWorld Psy. Ch.12

Chapter 12 Terms, Flat World Knowledge

QuestionAnswer
Abnormal Psychology The application of psychological science to understanding and treating mental disorders.
Prevalence The frequency of occurrence of a given condition in a population at a given time.
Psychological Disorder An ongoing dysfunctional pattern of thought, emotion, and behavior that causes significant distress, and that is considered deviant in that person's culture or society.
Bio-Psycho-Social Model of Illness A way of understanding disorder that assumes that disorder is caused by biological, psychological, and social factors.
Comorbidity A situation that occurs when people who suffer from one disorder also suffer at the same time from one or more other disorders.
Stigma A disgrace or defect that indicates that person belongs to a culturally devalued social group.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) A document that provides a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) A developmental behavior disorder characterized by problems with focus, difficulty maintaining attention, and inability to concentrate, in which symptoms start before 7 years of age.
Autistic Disorder (Autism) A disorder of neural development characterized by impaired social interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior and in which symptoms begin before 7 years of age.
Asperger's Disorder A development disorder taht affects a child's ability to socialize and communicate effectively with others and in which symptoms begin before 7 years of age.
Anxiety The nervousness or agitation that we sometimes experience, often about something that is going to happen.
Anxiety Disorder A psychological disturbance marked by irrational fears, often of everyday objects and situations.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) A psychological disorder in which a person has been excessively worrying about money, health, work, family life, or relationships for at least 7 months, even thought he or she knows that the concerns are exaggerated, and when the anxiety causes distress.
Panic Disorder A psychological disorder characterized by sudden attacks of anxiety and terror that have led to significant behavioral changes in the person's life.
Phobia A specific fear of a certain object, situation, or activity.
Social Phobia Extreme shyness around people or discomfort in social situations.
Agoraphobia Anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult or embarrassing or in which help may not be available.
Obsessive-compulsive Disorder (OCD) A psychological disorder that is diagnosed when an individual continuously experiences distressing or frightening thoughts, and engages in obsessions (repetitive thoughts) or compulsions (repetitive behaviors) in an attempt to calm these thoughts.
Dissociative Disorder A condition that involves disruptions or breakdowns of memory, awareness, and identity
Dissociative Amnesia A psychological disorder that involves extensive, but selective, memory loss, but in which there is no physiological explanation for the forgetting.
Dissociative Fugue A psychological disorder in which an individual loses complete memory of his or her identity and may even assume a new one, often far from home.
Dissociative Identity Disorder A psychological disorder in which two or more distinct and individual personalities exist in the same person, and there is memory disruption regarding personal information about the other personalities.
Mood The positive or negative feelings that are in the background of our everyday experiences.
Mood (or Affective) Disorders Psychological conditions in which the person's mood influences his or her physical, perceptual, social, and cognitive processes.
Dysthymia A psychological disorder characterized by mild, but chronic, depressive symptoms that last for at least 2 years.
Major Depressive Disorder (Clinical Depression) A psychological disorder characterized by an all-encompassing low mood accompanied by low self-esteem and by loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities.
Bipolar Disorder A psychological disorder characterized by swings in mood from overly "high" to sad and hopeless, and back again, with periods of near-normal mood in between.
Schizophrenia A serious psychological disorder marked by delusions, hallucinations, loss of contact with reality, inappropriate affect, disorganized speech, social withdrawal, and deterioration of adaptive behavior.
Psychosis A psychological condition characterized by a loss of contact with reality.
Hallucination An imaginary sensation that occurs in the absence of a real stimulus or that is a gross distortion of a real stimulus.
Delusion A false belief not commonly shared by others within one's culture, and maintained even though it is obviously out of touch with reality.
Personality Disorder A condition characterized by inflexible patterns of thinking, feeling, or relating to others that causes problems in personal, social, and work situations.
Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) A condition characterized by a prolonged disturbance of personality accompanied by mood swings, unstable personal relationships, identity problems, threats of self-destructive behavior, fears of abandonment, and impulsivity.
Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) A condition characterized by a pervasive pattern of violation of the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood.
Somatization Disorder (Briquet's Sndrome or Brissaud-Marie Syndrome) A psychological disorder in which a person experiences numerous long-lasting but seemingly unrelated physical ailments that have no identifiable physical cause.
Conversion Disorder a psychological disorder in which patients experience specific neurological symptoms such as numbness, blindness, or paralysis, but where no neurological explanation exists.
Hypocondriasis (Hypochondria) A psychological disorder accompanied by excessive worry about having a serous illness.
Factitious Disorder A psychological disorder in which participants fake physical symptoms in larger part because they enjoy the attention and treatment that they receive in the hospital.
Sexual Dysfunction A psychological disorder that occurs when the physical sexual response cycle is inadequate for reproduction or for sexual enjoyment.
Gender Identity Identification with a sex.
Gender Identity Disorder (GID, or transsexualism) A psychological disorder in which the individual displays a repeated and strong desire to be the other sex, a persistent discomfort with one's sex, and a belief that one was born the wrong sex, accompanied by significant dysfunction and distress.
Paraphilia A psychological disorder in which sexual arousal is obtained from a consistent pattern of inappropriate responses to objects or people, and in which the behaviors associated with the feelings are distressing and dysfunctional.
Created by: 535959219