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operant conditioning A type of conditioning in which the organism learns an association between a voluntary behavior and its consequences
primary reinforcer A reinforcer, such as a food reinforcer, that meets a basic biological need.
punishment Anything that follows a behavior and causes the behavior to decrease.
reinforcement Anything that follows a behavior and causes the behavior to increase
shaping The process of reinforcing successive approximations of the desired behavior, until the organism is performing the desired behavior in its entirety
unconditioned response (UCR) The unlearned, innate response to an unconditioned stimulus (UCS).
unconditioned stimulus (UCS): A stimulus that provokes an innate, unlearned response (UCR).
latent learning: A situation in which learning has occurred, but it is not used until there is an incentive to show the learning.
social-cognitive A theory developed by Albert Bandura, which states that learning occurs not only by direct experience with rewards and punishments, but also from observation of others. This theory was once called social learning theory.
Cannon-Bard theory of emotion A theory that states that the physiological sensations of an emotion and the psychological experience of an emotion happen simultaneously. Neither one causes the other.
drive-reduction theory Clark Hull's theory of learning in which our drives, such as hunger or thirst, prompt our behavior, which causes a reduction in the drive. This reduction in the drive is reinforcing, which causes us to engage in the behavior more frequently.
James-Lange theory of emotion: The theory that our experience of emotion depends on our awareness of our psychological responses.
two-factor theory of emotion: A theory of emotion proposed by Stanley Schacter and Jerome Singer that says that experiencing emotional states is not only a function of arousal, but also cognitive interpretations of the arousal.
Created by: tanderson004
Popular Psychology sets




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