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bkx PSY212 T1

PSY-212 Test #1

Four Goals of Science 1) Describe behavior 2) Understand behavior 3) Predict behavior 4) Apply behavior
Two Types of Behavioral Study 1) Nomothetic 2) Idiographic
Nomothetic Tendency to generalize
Idiographic Tendency to specify (case-studies)
Something is EMPIRICAL if... ...it is directly observable
Three Characteristics of the Experimental Method 1) Manipulation of an independent variable 2) Power to assign participants to conditions 3) Control over extraneous variables
Three Types of Independent Variable Manipulation 1) Instructional 2) Environmental 3) Invasive
Factorial Design Involves more than one variable
Internal Validity Researcher's confidence in causation
External Validity Generalizability
Mundane Realism Experimental setting LIKE real life
Experimental Realism Experimental setting IS real life
What does a correlation of zero mean? There is no LINEAR correlation, but there may be another kind.
Quasi-Experimental Design Takes advantage of existing groups (such as two similar schools)
Three Kinds of Descriptive Research 1) Naturalistic observation 2) Surveys 3) Case studies
IRB Institutional Review Board
Two Features of Psychometrics 1) Reliability 2) Validity
Three Types of Reliability 1) Test-retest reliability 2) Inter-item reliability 3) Inter-rater reliability
Three Types of Validity 1) Face validity 2) Construct validity 3) Criterion validity
Four Kinds of Nonverbal Behavior 1) Physical characteristics 2) Body language (kinesic cues) 3) Vocal cues (paralanguage) 4) Distance (proxemics)
Three Footprints of Possessions 1) Identity claims 2) Feeling regulators 3) Behavioral residue
Implicit Personality Theory Certain traits go along together and there may be keystone traits (example: someone "warm" might be assumed to also be likable, friendly, and approachable)
Primacy Effect The order of information plays a role in first impressions
Illusory Correlation Effect The belief that two things are correlated when they really aren't
Three Conditions of the Correspondent Inferences Theory 1) Actions freely chosen 2) Actions undesirable 3) Actions with uncommon effects These cues suggest intentionality of behavior.
Hedonic Relevance Stronger internal attributions when behavior affects us directly (pain or pleasure)
Personalism Stronger internal attributions when behavior is directed at you
Negativity Bias Actions with undesirable consequences are more likely to be attributed to the person
Three Features of Kelly's Cube 1) Distinctiveness 2) Consistency 3) Consensus These cues can suggest whether something is the result of internal or external causes.
Weiner's Model TABLE: Internal External Stable Ability Task difficulty Unstable Effort Luck
Fundamental Attribution Error Tendency to make internal attributions for other people's behaviors
Actor-Observer Bias Internal attributions for the behavior of others and external attributions for our own behavior
Misattribution Attributing something to the wrong source
Three Dimensions of Explanatory Style 1) Permanence (stable/unstable) 2) Pervasiveness (global/specific) 3) Personalization (internal/external) These are the determining factors of how we explain things that happen.
ABC Exercise 1) Adversity 2) Belief 3) Effect
Created by: bamkapowxo