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# Research Methods

Indepenednt Groups Between Subjects, Manipulated Variable, Random Assignment
Matched Groups (Basketball Heights) Between Subject, Manipulated, Matching
Nonequivalent Groups Between Subjects, Subject Variable, Matching
Repeated Measures Within Subjects, Manipulated, Counterbalancing
Two Level Designs- Between Subjects Subject Variable, Manipulated (Random Assignment and Matching)
Two Level Designs- Within Subjects Requires counterbalancing, small mean differences, fewer participants
What types of statistical tests are used for an IV with 2 levels? Independent > random assignment/ subject variables Paired > matched group/repeated measure
Placebo Groups one group does task and the other does not
Waiting List Control Groups Used to test efectiveness of a program; Equally motivated participants
What are ethical issues with control group designs? Denying treatments could cause problems and negative outcomes
What are the uses of single factor multilevel designs 1. Discover nonlinear effects 2. Test specific alternative hypothesis
Define interpolating? make estimates between points on a graph
Define extrapolating? make estimates outside points on a graph
What kind of statistical tests are used for 1 IV with 2 levels? t-test (independent and paired samples)
What kind of statistical tests are used for 1 IV with more than 2 levels? ANOVA- f statistic
Words written in results section
Tables typically means; frequencies
Graphs continuous: line graph discrete: bar graph
Define main effect effect of one single independent variable DV ignored by other IV
Define Interaction effect of one IV depends on level of another IV
How do we note multiple IV's and their levels 2 x 3 # - represents IV's # - level
Mixed Factorial Design at least one within and one between subject
Describe a PxE factorial Person- 1 subject Environment- 1 manipulated
Describe a mixed PxE factorial at least one of each other (between & within) and at least 1 subject and 1 manipulated
Sample size (in relation to more IV's or more levels of IV's) The more IV's or levels of IV, the more participants will be needed
When is a 1-way ANOVA used to analyze data I IV with more than 2 levels
When is a 2-way ANOVA used to analyze data 2 IV's and more than 2 levels
When is a 3-way ANOVA used to analyze data 3 IV's and more than 3 levels
Correlation exists whenever two variables are associated or related
What is the difference between a positive and negative correlation? positive- directed relationship (both variables move in the same direction) negative- inverse
TRUE OR FALSE: Correlations can show causation FALSE
what are the values of a correlation (between what two numbers) |1|
To show causation: -occur together -A causing B makes theoretical sense -A precedes B -Other explanations for co-occurance is ruled out
What do scatterplots do? -Assume linearity -Restrict the range
What is meant by directionality A can cause B, B can cause A
what to third variables have to do with correlations partial correlations help see if 3rd variables are related to the other two
What are the reasons for using correlations? -practical grounds -unconcerned with causation -ethical concerns
What are the ethical concerns with correlational research? can't study somethings with experiments
what is the coefficient of determinations? r2: portion of variability in one of the variables that can be accounted for through variability in the second variable
archival research information that has been found previously for some other reason
What are regression analyses? making predictions after finding correlations
Describe the line of best fit. How is it found? Regression line- minimizes distance between scores and line in the y-direction
Factor Analyses Which items do people respond in similar ways to
What are the ethical issues with applied psychology -ethical dilemmas - - consent, options, debriefing - internal vs. external -between subjects -no random assignments -within subjects- no counterbalancing
What do quasi- experimental designs lack? manipulated IV & equivalent groups
What are the types of quasi-experimental designs - Nonequivalent control group - PxE factorial design - correlational -interrupted time series
Nonequivalent control group between subjects not randomly assigned Experimental O1 T O2 Control O1 _ O2
Interrupted Time Series within subjects; lots of observation, treatment, more observation
Problems with Interrupted Time Series -when applied to real life you change measurement after treatment which causes problems -multiple changes > unknown meaning
What are the strengths of archival data lots of data, prevents reactivity
What are the weaknesses of archival data missing data: experimenter bias: not representative
Define needs analysis An evaluation of whether you have a population of a sufficient size and would the people actually use the program
pilot study trial run
formative evaulation done to see how program is running; and the implementations
cost-effectivesness analysis outcomes recieved are worth the cost
observational research primary goal: describe behavior
Naturalistic Observation hiding yourself to make yourself not look like a researcher
Participant Observation joining the group
What is the interaction/ structure classification for observational research? level of experimenter/ participant interaction level of structure imposed on setting
What are the challenges of observational research -Absence of control -Observer bias - Participant reactivity - Ethical Concerns
Convenience sample people who meet minimum requirements for a study
probability sample each member has some dfinable probability of being selected for the sample
random sample equal chance of selection
stratified sample identify important sub groups within a population
cluster sample select cluster of people who have some feature in common
Interviews face to face ADV: detailed response, follow up, more time given, clarity
Phone Surveys -short or long -follow up clarification -people won't stay -cheaper
Electronic Surveys -Via Email -Get people to a ceratin website
Mail Surveys perfection is key
Open Ended and Closed Ended Open-Detailed Closed- specific
Assessing memory and knowledge expect people do not have great memories from the past
Demographic information only ask if you HAVE to