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# Research Methods

Question | Answer |
---|---|

Indepenednt Groups | Between Subjects, Manipulated Variable, Random Assignment |

Matched Groups (Basketball Heights) | Between Subject, Manipulated, Matching |

Nonequivalent Groups | Between Subjects, Subject Variable, Matching |

Repeated Measures | Within Subjects, Manipulated, Counterbalancing |

Two Level Designs- Between Subjects | Subject Variable, Manipulated (Random Assignment and Matching) |

Two Level Designs- Within Subjects | Requires counterbalancing, small mean differences, fewer participants |

What types of statistical tests are used for an IV with 2 levels? | Independent > random assignment/ subject variables Paired > matched group/repeated measure |

Placebo Groups | one group does task and the other does not |

Waiting List Control Groups | Used to test efectiveness of a program; Equally motivated participants |

What are ethical issues with control group designs? | Denying treatments could cause problems and negative outcomes |

What are the uses of single factor multilevel designs | 1. Discover nonlinear effects 2. Test specific alternative hypothesis |

Define interpolating? | make estimates between points on a graph |

Define extrapolating? | make estimates outside points on a graph |

What kind of statistical tests are used for 1 IV with 2 levels? | t-test (independent and paired samples) |

What kind of statistical tests are used for 1 IV with more than 2 levels? | ANOVA- f statistic |

Words | written in results section |

Tables | typically means; frequencies |

Graphs | continuous: line graph discrete: bar graph |

Define main effect | effect of one single independent variable DV ignored by other IV |

Define Interaction | effect of one IV depends on level of another IV |

How do we note multiple IV's and their levels | 2 x 3 # - represents IV's # - level |

Mixed Factorial Design | at least one within and one between subject |

Describe a PxE factorial | Person- 1 subject Environment- 1 manipulated |

Describe a mixed PxE factorial | at least one of each other (between & within) and at least 1 subject and 1 manipulated |

Sample size (in relation to more IV's or more levels of IV's) | The more IV's or levels of IV, the more participants will be needed |

When is a 1-way ANOVA used to analyze data | I IV with more than 2 levels |

When is a 2-way ANOVA used to analyze data | 2 IV's and more than 2 levels |

When is a 3-way ANOVA used to analyze data | 3 IV's and more than 3 levels |

Correlation | exists whenever two variables are associated or related |

What is the difference between a positive and negative correlation? | positive- directed relationship (both variables move in the same direction) negative- inverse |

TRUE OR FALSE: Correlations can show causation | FALSE |

what are the values of a correlation (between what two numbers) | |1| |

To show causation: | -occur together -A causing B makes theoretical sense -A precedes B -Other explanations for co-occurance is ruled out |

What do scatterplots do? | -Assume linearity -Restrict the range |

What is meant by directionality | A can cause B, B can cause A |

what to third variables have to do with correlations | partial correlations help see if 3rd variables are related to the other two |

What are the reasons for using correlations? | -practical grounds -unconcerned with causation -ethical concerns |

What are the ethical concerns with correlational research? | can't study somethings with experiments |

what is the coefficient of determinations? | r2: portion of variability in one of the variables that can be accounted for through variability in the second variable |

archival research | information that has been found previously for some other reason |

What are regression analyses? | making predictions after finding correlations |

Describe the line of best fit. How is it found? | Regression line- minimizes distance between scores and line in the y-direction |

Multiple Regression | allows to add additional variables (y= a+b1x1, a+b2x2..etc) |

Factor Analyses | Which items do people respond in similar ways to |

What are the ethical issues with applied psychology | -ethical dilemmas - - consent, options, debriefing - internal vs. external -between subjects -no random assignments -within subjects- no counterbalancing |

What do quasi- experimental designs lack? | manipulated IV & equivalent groups |

What are the types of quasi-experimental designs | - Nonequivalent control group - PxE factorial design - correlational -interrupted time series |

Nonequivalent control group | between subjects not randomly assigned Experimental O1 T O2 Control O1 _ O2 |

Interrupted Time Series | within subjects; lots of observation, treatment, more observation |

Problems with Interrupted Time Series | -when applied to real life you change measurement after treatment which causes problems -multiple changes > unknown meaning |

What are the strengths of archival data | lots of data, prevents reactivity |

What are the weaknesses of archival data | missing data: experimenter bias: not representative |

Define needs analysis | An evaluation of whether you have a population of a sufficient size and would the people actually use the program |

pilot study | trial run |

formative evaulation | done to see how program is running; and the implementations |

cost-effectivesness analysis | outcomes recieved are worth the cost |

observational research | primary goal: describe behavior |

Naturalistic Observation | hiding yourself to make yourself not look like a researcher |

Participant Observation | joining the group |

What is the interaction/ structure classification for observational research? | level of experimenter/ participant interaction level of structure imposed on setting |

What are the challenges of observational research | -Absence of control -Observer bias - Participant reactivity - Ethical Concerns |

Convenience sample | people who meet minimum requirements for a study |

probability sample | each member has some dfinable probability of being selected for the sample |

random sample | equal chance of selection |

stratified sample | identify important sub groups within a population |

cluster sample | select cluster of people who have some feature in common |

Interviews | face to face ADV: detailed response, follow up, more time given, clarity |

Phone Surveys | -short or long -follow up clarification -people won't stay -cheaper |

Electronic Surveys | -Via Email -Get people to a ceratin website |

Mail Surveys | perfection is key |

Open Ended and Closed Ended | Open-Detailed Closed- specific |

Assessing memory and knowledge | expect people do not have great memories from the past |

Demographic information | only ask if you HAVE to |

ethics | surveys used to ask people about their lives |

Pilot testing | understand questions and words, length |

Linguistic ambiguity | clear in what you are asking |

2 questions in 1 item | don't know what to answer |

leading questions | persuade to go certain way |

Visual appeal | make it pretty |

order of questions | ease them into personal questions |

Rewards | Don't have to give them (lottery system) |