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Psy 101

Ch 16 Specific Disorders and Treatments

agoraphobia an excessive fear of open or public places
Antabuse the trade name for disulfiram, a drug used in the treatment of alcoholism
antipsychotic drugs drugs that relieve schizophrenia
atypical antidepressants drugs taht relieve depression for some ptients who do not respond to other antidepressants, generally with only mild side effects
atypical antipsychotic drugs drugs such as clozapine and risperidone, which relieve schizophrenia without causing tardive dyskinesia
bipolar disorder a condition in which a perosn alternates between periods of depression and periods of mania
bipolar I disorder a disorder condition characterized by at least one episode of mania
bipolar II disorder a disorder condition characcerized by episodes of major depression and hypomania, which is a milder degree of mania
catatonic schizophrenia a type of schizophrenia characterized by the basic symptoms plus prominent movement disorders
compulsion a repetitive, almost irresistible action
delusion an unfounded belief that is strongly held despite evidence against it
delusion of grandeur the belief that one is unusually important
delusion of persecution the belief taht one is being persecuted
delusion of reference the tendency to interpret all sorts of messages as if they were meant for oneself
dependence (or addiction) a self-destructive havit that someone finds difficult or impossible to quit
disorganized schizophrenia a type of schizophrenia characterized by incoherent speech, extreme lack of social relationships, and "silly" or odd behavior
dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia the theory that hte underlying cause of schizophrenia is excessive stimulation of certain types of dopamine synapses
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) a treatment using a brief elecrtical shock tat is administered across the patient's head to inuce a convulsion similar to epilepsy, sometimes used as a treatment for certain types of depression
explanatory style a tendency to accept one kind of explanation for success or failure more often than others
expressed emotion hostile or critical comments directed toward a person with a psychiatric disorder such as schizophrenia
flooding (or implosion or intensive exposure therapy) a treatment for phobia in which the person is suddenly exposed to the object of the phobia
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) a disorder in which people are almost constantly plagued by exaggerated worries
glutamate hpothesis of schizophrenia the view that the underlying problem causing schizophrenia is deficient stimulation of certain glutamate
hallucinations a perception not corresponding to reality, such as seeing or hering something that is not present or failing to see or her something that is present
harm reduction an approach to drug abuse thatconcentrates on decreasing the frequency of drug use and minimizing the harmful consequences to health and well-being
hyperventilation rapid deep breathing
interpersonal therapy a treatmetn tha focuses on coping with difficutlties someone has faced in the present or recent past, such as death of a loved one, a bad marriage, changes in life status, and lack of social skills
major depression a condition lasting most of the day, day after day, with a loss of interest and pleasure and a lack of productive activity
mania a condition in which people are constantly active, uninhibited, adn either excited or irritable
methadone a drug commonly offered as a less dangerous substitute for opiates
monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) drugs that block the metabolic breakdown of released dopamine, norepinephrie,a dn serotonin, thus prolonging the effects of these neurotransmitters on the receptors of the postsynaptic cell
negative symptoms symptoms that are present in other people-such as the ability to take care of themselves-but absent in people with schizophrenia
neurodevelopmental hypothesis the idea that schizophrenia originates with impaired development of hte nervous system before or around the time of birth, pissibly but not necessarily for genetic reasons
obsession a repetitive, unwelcome stream of thought
obsessive-compulsive disorder a condition with repetitive thoughts and actions
panic disorder (PD) a disorder characterized by frequent bouts of moderate anxiety adn occasional attacks of sudden increased heart rate, chest pains, difficulty breathing, sweating, faintness, and trembling
paranoid schizophrenia a type of schizophrenia characterized by the basic symptoms plus strong or elaborate hallucinations and delusions
phobia a strong, persistent fear of a scpecific object, extreme enough to interfere with normal living
positive symptoms characteristics present in people with schizophrenia and absent in others-such as hallucinations, delusions, abnormal movements, and thought disorder
residual schizophrenia a condition in which someone has had an episode of schizophreniaan dis now partly, but not fully recovered
schizophrenia a condition marked by deterioration of daily activities over a period of at least 6 months, plus hallucinations, delusions, flat or inappropriate emtions, certain movement disorders, or thought disorders
season-of-birth effect the tendency for people born in the winter months to be slightly more likely than other people are to develop schizophrenia
seasonal affective disorder (SD) (or depression with a seasonal pattern) a condition in which people become seriously depressed in one season of the year, such as winter
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) drugs taht block the reuptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin by the terminal bouton
social phobia a severe avoidance of other people and an especially strong fear of doing anything in public
St. John's wort an herb with antidepressant effects
systematic desensitization a method of reducing fear by gradually exposing people to the object of their fear
tardive dyskinesia a disorder characterized by tremors and involuntary movements
tricyclic drugs drugs that block the reabsorption of the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephringe, and serotonin, after they are released by teh terminal bouton, thus prolonging the effect fo these neurotransmitters on the receptors of the postsynaptic cell
Type I (or Type A) alcoholism alcoholism that is generally less sever, equally common in men and women, less dependent on genetics, andn likely to develop gradually, presumably in response to the difficulties in life
Type II (or Type B) alcoholism alcoholism taht is generally more severe, more common in men, more often associated with aggressive or antisocial behavior, more dependent on genteics, and likely to begin early in life
undifferentiated schizophrenia a typ eof schizophrenia characterized by the basic symptoms but no unusual or especially prominent symptoms
Created by: flola1x23
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