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I/O Psych Ch 15

Stress Management

psychological state of being overwhelmed with stress usually experienced by highly-motivated professionals faced with high work demands burnout
combination of air temperature, humidity, airflow, and heat radiation that determines how hot or cold the environment feels effective temperature
one way our bodies maintain a normal temperature, in which perspiration reduces excess heat evaporation
constant worrying about the future forecasting
one of the big five personality categories (the opposite of emotional stability), a description of people who are anxious, tense, and worried neuroticism
child-care center that is located on the site of the organization employing the parent on-site child-care facility
extent to which an employee’s personality, values, attitudes, philosophy, and skills match those of the organization person/organization fit
rating a potential stressor by asking how bad it really is compared with all things considered or with a worst-case scenario perspective taking
one way our bodies maintain a normal temperature, by the emission of heat waves radiation
system of child care in which an employer maintains a list of certified child-care centers that can be used by its employees referral service
stress that is carried over from previous stressful situations that we refuse to let go of residual stress
extent to which an employee’s job duties and performance expectations are not clearly defined role ambiguity
extent to which an employee’s role and expected role are the same as well as competing or conflicting roles role conflict
develops when individuals feel they lack skills or workplace resources to complete a task/perceive that task cannot be done in required time role overload
stress-prone person who is competitive, impatient, and hurried Type A personality
non–stress-prone person who is relaxed and agreeable Type B personality
child-care policy in which an organization pays all or some of its employees’ child-care costs at private child-care centers by providing the employees with vouchers voucher systems
Type B personalities are less likely to react negatively to stress
employees with high role ambiguity will become depressed
Mike and Josh have been arguing about who gets to make decisions about what parts to order. They have both been clerks for 3 years and are making the same salary. Mike's stress level can probably be explained by role ambiguity
human body cools down two different ways through radiation and evaporation
Larry is a junior at Raynes College and has trouble sleeping. He keeps worrying about not getting a job when he graduates and never finding the right person to marry. Larry's stress might be the result of forecasting
Clarence has been under a great deal of stress at work. His wife told him that they should watch some sitcoms on TV. Her advice is sound because laughter can __ __ you from a stressor help distance
Clarence has been under a great deal of stress at work. His wife told him that they should watch some sitcoms on TV. Her advice is sound because laughter can put a __ __ on a situation new perspective
Clarence has been under a great deal of stress at work. His wife told him that they should watch some sitcoms on TV. Her advice is sound because laughter can __ blood pressure reduce
technique designed to calm the emotions meditation
involves cleaning your desk and keeping a daily log time management
10% of workplace deaths are __ homicides
psychological & physical reaction to certain life events/situations stress
life events or situations that cause stress stressors
elevated BP, increased heart rate, muscle tension, & perspiration stress reactivity
negative physical & psychological consequences when stress reactivity events occurs longer than our body can tolerate strains
occurs when stressors result in feelings of challenge or achievement; feelings of stress are converted into positive energy & become motivating eustress
having little arousal or too much results in poor performance, whereas moderate levels result in highest level of performance optimal level of arousal
optimal level of arousal is also called inverted-U theory
bad or negative stress; happens when there is too much stress & when nothing is done to eliminate, reduce, or counteract its effects distress
distress usually occurs in situations or at events on which you place __ __ great importance
distress usually occurs in situations or at events that put __ __ on you great demands
distress usually occurs in situations or at events over which you eventually perceive you have little or no control
occurs when we perceive that there is an imbalance between demands placed on us & our ability to meet those demands negative stress
distress is called hindrance-related stress
eustress is called challenge-related stress
when Type A personalities experience stress their characteristics become exaggerated
pessimism, negative affectivity, reduced hardiness, & self-esteem gal under general trait of neuroticism
anxious, often depressed, & pessimistic, & lack hope neurotics
may experience certain stressors, such as sexual harassment, work/family conflict, more often women
men & women may __ __ to certain types of stressors react differently
__ have higher levels of stress than __ minorities; nonminorities
amount of stress you have experienced throughout your life seems to affect __ you will handle future stress how
if you are exposed to high levels of stress over a long duration, studies suggest that you are likely to react more quickly & negatively to situations that are potentially stress producing because you have become trained to respond in such a way
can occur through learning new behaviors to handle stress & working through your feelings about past stress desensitization
deal with such issues as family & intimate relationships, marriage, divorce, health issues, financial problems, & raising children personal stressors
many stressors can be considered as our reaction to change
major contributor to stress, & it affects both personal & professional life change
fear of unknown __ negative stress produces
does not allow people to cope with inevitable changes that come from living resisting change
if we do not want the change, do not understand why we have to make the change, & do not like how the change makes us feel it raises feelings of resentment
can be grouped under 2 broad categories of job characteristics & organizational characteristics occupational stressors
role conflict, role ambiguity, & role overload are 3 main job characteristics that cause stress
role overload is __ __ to stress highly correlated
role overload can be reduced if organizations actively ensure that employees have increased control over their jobs
key to minimizing stress from role conflict, ambiguity, & overload is to __ __ about your job duties get clarification
person-organization fit, organizational rules & policies, supervisory relationship, & organizational change are all __ __ likely to cause stress organizational characteristics
__ in philosophies & values can cause stress, lower job satisfaction, & increased turnover incompatibility
incompatibilities between __ & __ philosophies can quickly become stressors personal; management
realizing the amount of stress __ change, organizations are placing increasing emphasis on workplace wellness accompanying
stress from __ conflict at work can result in severe psychiatric problems interpersonal
important source of employee stress is perceived use of organizational __ politics
self-serving behaviors employees use to increase probability of obtaining positive outcomes in organizations organizational politics
behaviors designed to influence others with goal of helping both the organization & person playing the politics positive politics
portraying professional image, publicizing one's accomplishments, volunteering, & complimenting others are examples of positive politics
manipulative behaviors designed to achieve personal gain at expense of others & organization negative politics
backstabbing, withholding important info from others, & spreading rumors are examples of negative politics
in addition to increasing stress, it results in lower performance, lower levels of job satisfaction, & higher amounts of turnover negative organizational politics
__ frequencies do not affect employee performance as much as __ frequencies lower; higher
sounds that have same frequency, intensity, & loudness can differ in their pleasantness
noises can differ in whether they are __ or __ continuous; intermittent
has less effect on employee behavior constant noise
affects difficult tasks or those that involve cognitive & perceptual skills more than it affects less difficult tasks or those that involve physical performance noise
determine the degree to which noise will affect performance in people individual differences
Type __ personalities' BP & heart rate increased under conditions of high noise but not under conditions of low noise A
effect of noise also depends on __ for the noise necessity
effect of noise also depends on __ of the noise familiarity
when certain noises cannot be avoided they are __ __ than unnecessary noises less irritating
familiar noise is less distracting or meaningful than one that we hear for the first time
familiar sounds may also be less __ because our hearing loses sensitivity to loud sounds distracting
noise is more likely to __ quality of performance rather than its quantity decrease
noise is more likely to cause people to walk faster & make less eye contact
noise is more likely to decrease job __ satisfaction
noise is more likely to decrease performance on __ tasks cognitive
raise BP of employees in complex jobs, increase worker illness, cause people to be less helpful, & produce more aggravation & irritability continued exposure to high levels of noise
__ levels of office noise have been found to increase employee stress & reduce task motivation low
noise can cause people to narrow their __ __ __ so that they concentrate only on most important stimuli focus of attention
employers have attempted to solve/minimize problem of workplace noise by setting legal __ __ on exposure to noise at different decibel levels time limit
legal time limits set by OSHA are not __ __ as those recommended by National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health (NIOSH) as stringent
employers have attempted to solve/minimize problem of workplace noise by __ __ by using carpeting & acoustically treated ceilings changing environment
employers have attempted to solve/minimize problem of workplace noise by reducing amount of __ __ that reaches an employee unwanted noise
in one study, use of hearing protection devices in a noisy factory reduced workers' hostile behaviors
employers have attempted to solve/minimize problem of workplace noise through __ technology engineering
engineering technology to reduce noise works by reducing the __ __ of noise emitted actual amount
in one study using __ __ to mask office noise improved performance worse than __ group white noise; no-noise
when body temp is below normal blood vessels constrict
constriction of blood vessels when body temp is below normal also produces __ by reducing circulation numbness
air temp, humidity, airflow, & temp of objects in environment are four components of __ temperature effective
effective temp is usually computed by considering air temp & humidity
higher the humidity the __ air temp feels, and thus the __ the effective temp higher; higher
air temp & humidity interact with body's ability to __ __ through radiation & evaporation cool down
when air temp is higher than body temp we are unable to __ __ radiate heat
when humidity is high, it is more difficult to __ __ heat through evaporation lose body
high air temp & high humidity make the body's __ __ __ less effective natural cooling system
extremely high or low temp can affect __ on cognitive, physical, & perceptual tasks performance
performance dropped by 13.9% when temp rose above 90 degrees
performance dropped by 14.9% when temp fell below 50 degrees
hot temp had their __ __ on reaction time, & on performance on attentional, perceptual, & mathematical tasks greatest effect
__ temp had their greatest effect on reasoning, memory, & learning tasks cold
__ temp seem to have their greatest effect on tasks when only a small amount of time is spent on task extreme
we can eventually __ to extreme temps & perform at close to normal levels adapt
high temps affect work performance when workloads are heavy
exposure to even moderate levels of heat while performing light __ work can be dangerous repetitive-motion
temperature will have greatest effect on performance when work activity is __ continuous
with __ __, effects of either hot/cold can be greatly reduced rest breaks
most people can work for approximately 120 minutes at 90 degrees without impaired performance
at 100 degrees maximum time for __ __ is approximately 30 minutes continued performance
in temp of 90 degrees, rest breaks scheduled at maximum of __ __ apart will help keep performance from deteriorating two hours
at 100 degrees rest breaks must occur at intervals of __ __ 30 minutes less than
stress we encounter in our daily lives, & might include irritations such as waiting in traffic or not being able to get some info from library minor frustration
if we do not have a healthy outlet for minor frustrations they may carry over to next day, and next, until they become long-term stressors
minor frustrations are also considered short-term frustrations
minor frustrations can be __ through perspective talking managed
key to eliminating stress from forecasting is to learn how to recognize those areas that are out of your __ & ceasing to worry about them control
__ stress is almost always long-term residual
residual stress often leads individuals to __ to learn positive ways to cope with past negative events couseling/therapy
sweat, headaches, body aches, frequency of migraines are all symptoms of stress
often are result of tensing up during stressful times body aches
people who report waking in the morning with their back, neck, shoulder & legs sore is attributed to tensing during sleep
hair loss is considered a(n) __ __ __ to stress extreme physical response
stress has been labeled __ __ because it can chip away at your immune system, making you more vulnerable to illness & disease silent killer
stress can increase effects of __ __ because hormones released in response to stress can cause swelling in joints rheumatoid arthritis
50-70% of all illnesses, such as coronary heart disease, can be attributed to stress
minor ailments such as recurring colds can be attributed to recent stressful events
long-term stress can lead to __ depression clinical
has effects on the body such as stroke-triggering clots, hypertension, & high heart rates prolonged depression
key to managing depression is early diagnosis & treatment
__ relationship between stress & job performance may exist in that moderate levels of stress actually improved productivity, increase energy levels, & heighten creativity curvilinear
lack energy & are filled with frustration & tension people who feel burned out
dreading coming to work each day is a(n) __ symptom of burnout emotional symptom
cynicism toward coworkers, clients, & organization are __ __ of burn out behavioral signs
people who are burned out display __ toward people with whom they work detachment
highest during times of burnout & increased stress absenteeism & turnover
13% of __ is attributed to stress absenteeism
days in which employees miss work to take a break from stress mental health day
stress is lowered immediately following a day of absence but that taking a day off had no long-term effects
use professional counselors to deal with employee problems EAPs
means incorporating daily practices that will prepare your mind and body to handle effects of stress managing stress before it happens
you should continue with your pre-stress management techniques as well as incorporate some others during stress
you should continue to proactively manager your stress even after stressor is eliminated
exercise, laughter, diet, smoking reduction, sleep, support, self-empowerment & coping skills are techniques you can use to proactively reduce stress
especially helpful for emotional calming abdominal breathing
used to relax the body progressive muscle relaxation
more than 40% of employees in labor force have children under 18
lack of regular childcare options causes employees with children to miss a(n) __ __ days of work per year additional 8
most common measures of stress are self-report questionnaires
Occupational Stress Inventory, Job Stress Inventory, Maslach Burnout Inventory, Interpersonal Conflict at Work Scale, Organizational Constraints Scale, Quantitative Workload Inventory, & Physical Symptoms Inventory are all measures of work-related stress & strain
problem with using self-report questionnaires to measure stress is that people may not __ they are stressed know
problem with using self-report questionnaires to measure stress people may not __ __ in their answers be truthful
in addition to self-report questionnaires to measure stress __ & __ measures can be used physiological & biomedical
include BP, perspiration, heart rate, & muscle tension physiological measures of stress
include cortisol & catecholamine levels biomedical measures of stress
traffic accidents& homicide are most common workplace injuries among men
traffic accidents & homicide are most common workplace injuries among women
representing 71% of job-related homicides is violence against an employee occurring as result of crime
representing 14% of job-related homicides is violence against an employee is violence against law enforcement officers
representing 15% of job-related homicides is violence against employee/supervisor as an act of __ by another employee, customer, or jilted lover anger/vengeance
employee violence against other employees is usually result of interpersonal disagreements
13% of workplace-violence incidents involve employees __ __ against supervisor as result of being fired, laid off, or subjected to some form of negative personnel attention seeking revenge
done by 36% of employees committing workplace violence suicide
psychologists have expanded studies of workplace violence to include behaviors referred to as mobbing & bullying
consist of hostile, alienating, & unethical behavior among employees mobbing/bullying
workplace violence can be __ through security measures, employee screening, & management awareness reduced
employees who go crazy & shoot people are called berserkers
Created by: lfrancois