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I/O Psych Ch 14

Organization Development

fourth and final stage of emotional reaction to downsizing, in which employees accept that lay-offs will occur and are ready to take steps to secure their future acceptance stage
second stage of emotional reaction to downsizing, in which employees become angry at the organization anger stage
leaders use available information to make a decision without consulting their subordinates autocratic I strategy
leaders obtain necessary information from their subordinates and then make their own decision autocratic II strategy
total number of potential work hours available each day bandwidth
person who enjoys change and makes changes for the sake of it change agent
person who is not afraid of change but makes changes only when there is a compelling reason to do so change analyst
person who hates change and will do anything to keep change from occurring change resister
24-hour cycle of physiological functions maintained by every person Circadian rhythm
work schedules in which 40 hours are worked in less than the traditional five-day workweek compressed workweeks
leaders share the problem on an individual basis with their subordinates and then make a decision that may or may not be consistent with the thinking of the group consultative I strategy
leaders share the problem with the group as a whole and then make a decision that may or may not be consistent with the thinking of the group consultative II strategy
hours in a flextime schedule during which every employee must work core hours
first stage in the emotional reaction to change or layoffs, in which an employee denies that an organizational change or layoff will occur denial stage
chart made for each employee that shows what level of input the employee has for each task empowerment charts
third emotional stage following the announcement of a layoff, in which employees worry about how they will survive financially fear stage
shift schedule in which employees never change the shifts they work fixed shifts
part of a flextime schedule in which employees may choose which hours to work flexible hours
flextime schedule in which employees have flexibility in scheduling but must schedule their work hours at least a week in advance flexitour
flextime schedule in which employees can choose their own hours without any advance notice or scheduling gliding time
leaders share the problem with the group and let the group reach a decision or solution group I strategy
work schedule in which two employees share one job by splitting the work hours job sharing
flextime schedule in which employees have flexibility in scheduling but must schedule their work hours a day in advance modified flexitour
working more than one job moonlighting
shared values, beliefs, and traditions that exist among individuals in an organization organizational culture
process whereby new employees learn the behaviors and attitudes they need to be successful in an organization organizational socialization
process of having certain organizational functions performed by an outside vendor rather than an employee in the organization outsourcing
person who is willing to change receptive changer
person who will initially resist change but will eventually go along with it reluctant changer
procedures in which employees participate to become “one of the gang” rituals
shift schedule in which employees periodically change the shifts that they work rotating shifts
first step in organizational change, in which employees look for practices and policies that waste time & are counterproductive sacred cow hunt
employees who retain their jobs following a downsizing survivors
organizational behaviors or practices that convey messages to employees symbols
working at home rather than at the office by communicating with managers and coworkers via phone, computer, fax machine, and other offsite media telecommuting
employees hired through a temporary employment agency temporary employee
temporary employees are also called temps
employees who lose their jobs due to a layoff victim
when organizations undergo change, the final stage employees go through is called internalization
to create a good atmosphere for change, it is important for an organization to create __ with the current system dissatisfaction
a manager who is about to make decision regarding work schedules, he has all the info he needs, & is well thought of by his employees; how should he make this decision? make it himself
highest level of employee input & control; also called empowerment absolute
universal about employees' desire for empowerment all employees want it
method of avoiding downsizing is based on the premise that most economic recessions last less than a year restricted overtime
emotional counseling, financial counseling, & career assessment are services that are needed by layoff victims
according to research, employees who work 12-hour shifts are __ than those working 8-hour shifts healthier
research indicates that less absenteeism, slight increases in productivity, & higher job satisfaction are ALL associated with flexible working schedules
employee who works only the morning shift each day has a(n) fixed shift schedule
process of improving organizational performance by making organization-wide, rather than individual, changes organizational development
managing change, empowering employees, downsizing, & implementing innovative work schedules are __ of organizational development aspects
sacred cow hunt is an organization-wide attempt to get rid of practices that serve no useful purpose
paper, meeting & speed are types of sacred cow hunts
usually forms & reports that cost organizations money to prepare, distribute, & read paper cow
to determine if something is a(n) to determine if something is a(n) __ cow consider extent to which it increases efficiency, productivity, or quality paper
good annual practice is to review all forms & reports to determine whether they are still needed
if annual practice of reviewing all forms & reports determines they are still needed, then determining if they are still needed in their current format
to reduce number & length of meetings, ask person calling meeting to determine the cost of the meeting
to reduce number & length of meetings, consider whether the cost will exceed __ __ potential benefits
when people are forced to consider benefits of most meetings against their cost, most meetings will not be held
cause employees to work at a faster than optimal pace, resulting in decreased quality, increased stress, & increased health problems unnecessary deadlines
in addition to sacred cow hunts, effective change can be encouraged by __ like a beginner thinking
in addition to sacred cow hunts, effective change can be encouraged by not being __ with something that is working well complacent
in addition to sacred cow hunts, effective change can be encouraged by not playing by everyone else's __; make your own rules
in addition to sacred cow hunts, effective change can be encouraged by __ employees for making the attempt to change or to try something new rewarding
employees are often initially __ to change reluctant
employees may be reluctant towards change because they fear it will result in less favorable __ __ working conditions
employees may be reluctant towards change because they fear it will result in less favorable __ outcomes economic
feeling out of control & if they are losing their identity, meaning, & belonging common for employees undergoing change
occur between 3-7 stages/phases, depending on whether focus of theory is the organization, change agent, or employee theories about change process
difference between stage & phase is that stages are __ __ periods distinct time
difference between stage & phase is that phases can __ with one another overlap
organizations go through unfreezing, moving, & refreezing Lewin theory of change process
organization must convince employees & other stakeholders that current state of affairs is unacceptable & that change is necessary unfreezing stage
organization takes steps to move organization to desired state, through training, new work processes, etc. moving stage
organization develops ways to keep new changes in place, such as formalizing new policy & regarding employees for behaving in manner consistent with new change refreezing stage
Carnell suggests that employees typically go through denial, defense, discarding, adaptation, & internalization during major organizational changes
during __ stage employees try to convince themselves that old way if working & create reasons why proposed changes will never work denial
employees begin to believe that change will actually occur, they become defensive & try to justify their positions/ways of doing things defense stage
during defense stage, there is the idea that if an organization is changing the way in which employees perform, there is __ __ that employees must have previously been doing things wrong inherent criticism
employees begin to realize not only that organization is going to change but that employees are going to have to change as well discarding stage
during discarding stage, change is inevitable, and it is in best interest of employees to discard __ __ & start to accept change as new reality old ways
employees test new system, learn how it functions, & begin to make adjustments in way they perform adaptation stage
during adaptation stage, employees spend __ __ at this stage & can often become frustrated & angry tremendous energy
final stage, employees have become immersed in new culture, become comfortable with new system, & accepted their new coworkers 7 environment internalization stage
is dependent on reason behind change, leader making change, & personality of person being changed are dependent on extent to which employees __ & __ change accept; handle
evolutionary & revolutionary are organization changes distinguished by Warner Burke
continual process of upgrading or improving processes; vast majority of change evolutionary change
"real jolt to the system" that drastically changes way things are done revolutionary change
developing new brand product line that requires vastly different skill set, completely changing organizational structure, or organizational misconduct that causes organization to completely change its ethical policies & behavior examples of revolutionary change
change from Windows XP to Vista, change in supervisor whom one reports, or change in how to submit travel receipts for reimbursement examples of evolutionary change
revolutionary change is __ __ than is evolutionary change more difficult
employee __ of change is often a function of reason behind the change acceptance
employees __ change that is due to financial problems, external mandates, or attempts to improve organization understand
acceptance is lower when employees perceive change to be in __ __ organizational philosophy
acceptance is lower when employees perceive change to be a(n) __ on the part of the person making the change whim
acceptance is lower when employees perceive change to be because everyone else is __ changing
employees are least likely to accept change if they do not understand or were not told __ __ the change reason behind
factor affecting employee acceptance of change is __ making or suggesting change person
workers are more positive about change when the source of change is within the work group
changes proposed by leaders who are well liked & respected and who have history of success are __ __ to be accepted more likely
for organizational change of any type to work, it is essential that employees __ __ as a whole as well as specific individuals making change trust organization
there is __ __ in way in which people instigate/react to change considerable variability
reasoned change is good, but change for the sake of change is __ disruptive
a change __ motto might be "If it ain't broke, break it" agent's
a change __ motto might be "If it ain't broke, leave it alone; if its broke fix it" analyst's
change analyst's are different from change agent's because they are not driven by a need to __ __ change constantly
__ changer's motto might be "If its broke I'll help fix it" receptive
receptive changers typically have high __ self-esteem
receptive changers typically have optimistic __ personalities
receptive changers typically believe they have __ over their own lives control
__ changers motto might be :Are you sure its broken?" reluctant
change __ motto might be "It may be broken, but its still better than the unknown" resisters
important factor is employee acceptance of change is the way change is implemented
when organizations are planning change they intend the change process to be __ in that they begin with Phase 1, move to Phase 2, and so on until change is completed linear
typically there is a(n) __ __ for each phase of a change process initial timeline
change process __ goes as planned seldom
during change process __ will occur resulting in need to make revisions to change process setbacks
according to Denton, 1st steps in organizational change is to create proper atmosphere
in creating an atmosphere for change, employees should be __ to determine how satisfied they are with the current system surveyed
if things go as normal, results of employee survey will indicate many employees are unhappy with way things are currently done & have suggestions for improvement during the process of creating an atmosphere for change
during creating an atmosphere for change, sharing the survey results with employees, organization can protect itself from employees reacting to change by remembering "good old days"
after creating dissatisfaction with the status quo, Denton advised organizations to work hard to __ __ of change by providing emotional support reduce fear
after creating dissatisfaction with the status quo, Denton advised organizations to reduce the fear of change by allowing employees to vent & discuss their __ feelings
after creating dissatisfaction with the status quo, Denton advised organizations to reduce the fear of change by providing employees with __ __ that allows them to make mistakes during transition period safety net
fear of change can be reduced by having someone in organization __ benefits of change describe
employees are most responsive to change when they are kept well informed
unless their is need for secrecy, employees should be aware of and involved in __ __ of change all aspects
if employees are kept in the dark until the very end about a change, they usually suspect that something bad is happening
most successful organization changes occur in a(n) __ __ timely fashion
the longer it takes to change, the greater the opportunity for things to wrong
the longer it takes to change, the greater chance that employees will become disillusioned
many consultants advise that organization should not remain in __ __ for longer than 2 years change mode
organizational culture is often referred to as __ culture or corporate __ corporate; climate
establishes workplace norms of appropriate behavior & defines roles & expectations that employees & management have of each other organizational/corporate culture
in organizations each department or office can be a(n) __ with norms of behavior that may be different from those of overall organization subculture
culture & norms are also result from __ or __ the behaviors of others observing; modeling
organizational culture has traditionally been ignored during restructuring & other changes because there is __ __ that culture can't be changed general belief
organizational culture has traditionally been ignored during restructuring & other changes because many organizations do not __ __ to change their cultures know how
important that organization know how to __ __ in its change process include culture
change process includes holding on to __ __ of present culture & adding __ __ that are important successful elements; new elements
assessing desired culture & comparing it with existing one to determines what needs to change 1st step in changing culture
creating dissatisfaction with current to create support for new one & maintaining new one 2 additional step in changing culture
involves great deal of discussion & analysis; including needs assessment, determining executive direction, implementation considerations, training, & evaluation of new culture assessment of new culture
because parts of existing culture may actually support certain organizational changes, current culture must be analyzed & compared with desired culture to determine what might need to change
areas such as role expectations, job descriptions identifying new decision-making responsibilities, accountability, rewards, & employee selection systems must be reviewed
usually collected through observations, review of existing documentation, & employee interviews/surveys consisting of questions that ask for potential recommendation of changes data for needs analysis of culture
in order to determine executive direction, management must analyze the needs assessment to determine decisions or actions that will reinforce culture
in order to determine executive direction, management must analyze the needs assessment to assess __ of certain changes feasibility
according to research, it takes __ __ of top management to implement empowering philosophy wholehearted support
addressing possible obstacle to culture change during transformation process can usually minimize unintended consequences
addresses how new culture will be implemented implementation considerations
if organization's desired culture includes encouragement of more input by employees, they should be allowed to __ in implementing empowering organization in order to support new culture participate
all organizational members must be __ in a new philosophy for new culture to thrive & be long-lasting trained
training have often been __ __ in organizations that have declared that their members are now empowered to share in decisions biggest barrier
management and employees have __ __ of what empowerment culture means different interpretations
management and employees have different interpretations of how to __ __ empowerment culture carry out
training can reduce __ & confusion ambiguity
must be established to review new culture evaluation mechanism
once the __ __ has been determined, the next step is implementing it by creating dissatisfaction with existing culture ideal culture
for employees to accept a new culture existing culture & status quo must be upset
a successful __ __ requires commitment from all levels of the organization cultural transformation
once the process of transformation has started, it is important that it be maintained
if new culture is expected to last, developing new __ __ & __ __ should occur reward systems; selection methods
rewarding current employees for successfully __ & __ with new system is imperative participating; cooperating
future employees should be selected on basis of how well they __ new culture optimize
as current employees are replaced by new ones, the new culture can become __ into desired system selected by leadership frozen
socialization process of new employees must __ the new culture reinforce
organizational socialization helps any newcomer to organization define their __ and what is expected of their position role
include such things as hearing same stories repeated by several different employees informal strategies of socialization
according to informal strategies of socialization, if new employees constantly hears __ __ eventually they will believe that organization is incompetent, mistreats its employees or is unethical negative stories
rituals are __ way to influence socialization process formal
symbols are formal way to __ socialization process influence
can range from asking employees for their opinions to giving them complete decision-making control empowering employees
empowering employees is also referred to as ways to increase levels of employee input
employees need to be involved in decisions in circumstances in which __ of the decision is important quality
employees need to be involved in decisions in circumstances in which decision __ employees affects
employees need to be involved in decisions in circumstances in which employees don't __ supervisor trust
1st factor to be considered in making decision is whether one decision will be better than another
2nd factor in decision making involves extent to which leaders have __ __ to make decision alone sufficient information
if leaders do not have sufficient information to make a decision alone, then __ with other is desired only if leaders wants subordinates to feel involved consultation
if leaders lack sufficient knowledge to make a decision consultation is essential
3rd factor in decision making is extent to which leader knows __ information is needed & __ to get it what; how
knowing what information is needed & how to obtain it is problem's structure
4th decision-making factor involves degree to which it is important that decision be accepted by others
5th decision-making factor is __ acceptance subordinate
leaders often ask subordinates for opinions even though they already know what they will decide, because they are attempting to __ __ of others by eliciting opinions & comments gain support
6th factor in decision-making process in extent to which subordinates are __ to achieve organizational goals & thus can be trusted to make decisions motivated
final factor in decision-making process involves amount of __ that likely among subordinates when various solution to problem are considered conflict
answering the questions in the Vroom-Yetton Model will lead to one of __ possible decision-making strategies five
Autocratic I is an effective strategy when leader has __ information necessary
Autocratic I is an effective strategy when __ __ __ is not important or likely to occur regardless of decision acceptance by group
Consultative I is useful in situations in which it is __ for group to accept decision but in which group members may not agree regarding best decision important
main difference between Consultative I & II strategies is that with II entire group involved
Consultative II is used when acceptance of decision by __ is important group
Consultative II is used when individual group members are likely to __ with on another about the best solution agree
the role of leader in Group I strategy is merely to __ in decision-making process assist
Group I is effective when group acceptance of decision is important & when group can be __ to arrive at decision that is consistent with org goals trusted
research on Vroom-Yetton Model found that managers who used decision-making strategy recommended by model made __ decisions better-quality
when employers talk about empowering employees they most often want to give employees __ __ in day-to-day activities more say
levels of input might be a better choice of term than empowerment because employees often apply different meaning to word than intend by employers
at __ level, employees are given instructions about what to do, when to do it, & how it should be done following
employees at following level employees have no __ __ over their jobs real control
employees at following level can be those who are new or inexperienced to work being performed
employees at following level can be those with weak __ skills decision-making
at ownership of own product level, employees are still told what to do but are __ __ for quality of their output solely responsible
ownership of own product level removes redundant systems
every person's work is checked by another person redundant human system
logic behind redundant systems is that with more than one person checking quality, there is less chance of __ __ reaching consumer poor-quality product
most relevant drawback of redundant systems is that satisfaction, motivation, & performance are often __ when others check our work lessened
making employees responsible for their own output motivates then to check their work more carefully
making employees responsible for their own output provides them with a sense of __ in their product ownership
making employees responsible for their own output provides a greater sense of __ & __ autonomy; independence
employees are asked to provide feedback, suggestions, & input into a variety of organizational concerns advisory level
key at advisory level is that there is __ __ that organization will follow advice given by employees no guarantee
key at advisory level is that the __ __ is that organization will seriously consider employee advice only guarantee
idea behind advisory level is that employees often have the __ __ about their jobs so their input makes good business sense best knowledge
though employees often have knowledge to make a decision, they are placed at advisory level because they may not have the motivation to make the __ __ best decision
allows employee to make a decision; however, it is made at a group level shared/participative/team
in shared/participative/team level in __ __ is the team's decision not implements rare circumstances
shared/participative/team employees must not only be well trained in decision making, but also be willing to take on responsibility of making decisions
give employee final authority to make decision on their own, no group consensus, no supervisory approval absolute
many employees are leery about being given __ __ because of the unintended possible ramifications of a decision absolute power
rather than punishing employees on absolute level who make a bad decision, it is better to discuss what would have been a better decision and explain why employee's decision was improper
organization never have just __ __ of employee input & control that applies to every employee one level
levels of employee input & control will differ by __ & __ employee; task
individual employee empowerment charts are a way to reduce confusion
new employees are likely to placed at following level until they __ __ in performing the task demonstrate mastery
individual employee empowerment charts provide __ __ for providing employees with more autonomy as their skills & experience increase systematic plan
research indicates that increased empowerment typically results in __ __ __ for employees in US, Mexico, & Poland not for India increased job satisfaction
with empowerment comes risk of making __ __ & thus possible reprimand/firing bad decisions
when organizations restructure the result is often decrease in size of their workforce
81% of downsizing organizations were __ the year prior to downsizing profitable
outsourcing is a strategy used by more than __ of organizations 80%
employee assistance/wellness programs, benefits & payroll administration, training, data processing, housekeeping, & landscaping commonly outsourced functions
as an alternative to downsizing/layoffs organizations will __ hiring of new permanent employees freeze
as an alternative to downsizing/layoffs organizations will encourage employees to __ __ & then help them learn skills need to make it change careers
as an alternative to downsizing/layoffs organizations will offer early __ __ retirement packages
drawback to early retirements packages is that only 10-20% of __ __ agree to take it eligible employees
as an alternative to downsizing/layoffs organizations ask employees to take pay cuts or defer salary increases
most economic recessions last less than a year
to get employees to agree to a pay cut organizations will offer __ __ that is worth more than the pay cut company stock
as an alternative to downsizing/layoffs organizations can ask employees to __ work scheduled adjust
restricting overtime, implementing job sharing, encouraging employees to work at home, implementing payless holidays/shortened workweek, & reducing employees' pay are ways many organization attempt o avoid layoffs
employees can reduce effect of downsizing by __ their organization's economic health monitoring
use of any workforce reduction strategies, rumors of corporate acquisitions/mergers, loss of major contract, & increases in number of "secret" managerial meetings are all signs of possible economic trouble in an organization
employees should __ __ of their personal standing at work to help determine their vulnerability to being laid off take stock
might include seniority, performance, salary level, & organizational need criteria to choose employees for lay offs
committee deciding which employees will leave should be diverse in terms of race, sex, & age in order to reduce chances of legal problems
layoff committee's decisions should be analyzed to determine potential __ __ against protected classes adverse impact
layoff committee's decisions should be analyzed to determine __ __ against older workers intentional discrimination
are best done in person & employees need to receive concrete information announcement of layoffs
when answers to __ __ are not available at announcement of layoffs, employees become anxious, angry, & resentful, causing rumors employees' questions
programs typically include emotional counseling, financial counseling, career assessment/guidance, & job search training outplacement programs
after receiving word of being laid off employees go through four stages that are similar to stages of change
during denial stage they will not participate in efforts to __ __ because they don't see a need to participate in something that is not going to happen help them
during anger stage, it is important that employees be given a(n) __ __ through which to vent their anger & frustration appropriate avenue
during fear stage, emotional counseling moves from listening stage to one that is more empathic and soothing
it is at acceptance stage that employees are ready for specific offers of assistance
should include issues of severance pay, unemployment insurance, medical insurance, & any special programs that might be available to help financial counseling process
financial needs, time constraints, & geographic constraints should be considered in discussing potential careers
major issue that arises during career assessment & guidance process is the ability of layoff victim to obtain new training
increases in headaches, stomach upsets, sleeping problems, cholesterol levels, physical illness, hospitalization rates, heart trouble, hypertension, ulcers, vision problems, & shortness of breath are reported by victims of downsizing
research indicates that survivors suffer __ __ psychological trauma
research indicates that survivors' __ __ is related to way in which they and their not-so-fortunate counterparts are treated during downsizing process future productivity
research indicates that survivors of downsizing __ __ of taking risks, and are more apprehensive & narrow-minded become afraid
research indicates that survivors of downsizing __ __ stressed, anxious, secretive, skeptical, cynical, & distrustful are more
research indicates that survivors of downsizing have __ role conflict & ambiguity greater
research indicates that survivors of downsizing __ __ in themselves & management lose confidence
research indicates that survivors of downsizing have __ __ of morale & job satisfaction lower levels
research indicates that survivors of downsizing feel a lose of control
survivors of downsizing will be more productive & feel more secure if they __ __ to participate in decisions & make suggestions, given moderate level of security, supported by supervisors & org if layoff victims are treated well are allowed
it is important that the organization __ __ about layoff victims talk positively
it is important that the organization keep an open __ __ policy with survivors two-way communication
it is important that the organization communicate __ __ to survivors company vision
to reduce __ __ on survivors, organizations must ensure that procedure used to determine layoffs is fair & clearly communicated to both victims & survivors negative effects
certain employees are encouraged to work only part time but are paid a higher hourly rate for those hours peak-time pay
Created by: lfrancois
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