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bkx PSY212 T4, P4

PSY-212 Test #4, Part 4: CH 10, Aggression

Aggression Behavior intended to injure another
Assertiveness Behavior intended to express dominance or confidence
Indirect aggression Behavior intended to hurt someone without face-to-face confrontation
Direct aggression Behavior intended to hurt someone to his or her face
Emotional aggression Hurtful behavior that stems from angry feelings
Instrumental aggression Hurting another to accomplish some other (nonaggressive) goal
Displacement Indirect expression of an aggressive impulse away from the person or animal that elicited it
Catharsis Discharge of aggressive impulses
Frustration-aggression hypothesis (original) Aggression is always the result of frustration, and frustration will always lead to aggression.
Frustration-aggression hypothesis (reformulated) Frustration is linked only to emotional aggression, not to instrumental aggression. Frustration only leads to negative aggression when it generates negative feelings
Excitation-transfer theory The theory that anger is physiologically similar to other emotional states and that any form of emotional arousal can enhance aggressive responses
Type A behavior pattern A group of personality characteristics, including time-urgency and competitiveness, that is associated with higher risk for coronary disease
Relative deprivation The feeling that one has less than the others to whom one compares oneself
Cognitive-neoassociation theory Theory that any unpleasant situation triggers a complex chain of internal events, including negative emotions and negative thoughts; depending on other cues in the situation (i.e. weapons), this negativity will be expressed as either fight or flight
Weapons effect The tendency for weapons, such as guns, to enhance aggressive thoughts, feelings, and actions
Social learning theory Theory that aggression is learned through direct reward or by watching others being rewarded for aggressiveness
Psychopath Individual characterized by impulsivity, irresponsibility, low empathy, grandiose self-worth, and lack of sensitivity to punishment; inclined toward acting violently for personal gain
Meta-analysis A statistical combination of results from different studies of the same topic
Differential parental investment The principle that animals making higher investment in their offspring (female as compared to male mammals, for instance) will be more careful in choosing mates)
Sexual selection A form of natural selection favoring characteristics that assist animals in attracting mates or in competing with members of their own sex
Culture of honor A set of societal norms whose central idea is that people (particularly men) should be ready to defend their honor with violent retaliation if necessary
Defensive attributional style A tendency to notice threats and interpret other people’s behavior as intended to do one harm
Effect/danger ratio Assessment of the likely beneficial effect of aggressiveness balanced against the likely dangers
Difference in Aggression Between Men and Women Men: more likely to use direct aggression through violence Women: more likely to use indirect aggression through vicious behind-the-back strategies Exception: Women are more likely to use violence against their romantic partners
Freud's Theory on Aggression "Death Instinct" - an innate pull to end one's life that conflicts with the life instincts and is therefore redirected toward the destruction of other people
Konrad Lorenz Proposed that humans have an innate urge to attack that builds up over time until it is discharged – however, he also theorized that animals (including) humans would not be inclined to behave aggressively without an outside trigger such as a threat
Alcohol myopia Caused by alcohol consumption, a narrow focus of attention on whatever seems to be most important to the person at the moment (theorized to be a potent cause of date rape)
Marvin Wolfgang 37% of homicides in a study were shown to be caused by trivial altercations such as an insult or one person bumping into another
Andrea Yates Drowned her 5 children in a bathtub, apparently due to post-partum depressive psychosis
Cross-lagged panel correlational design Looks at correlations across time, allowing researchers to come closer to inferring causality because it rules out alternative variables and suggests causality
What is the best predictor of school shooters Long-term rejection (a history of being bullied)
Five Theories of Aggression 1) Lorenz's Ethological Theory 2) Physiology 3) Frustration/Aggression Hypotheses 4) Learning 5) Individual differences
Sign stimuli Triggers that periodically release built-up aggression
Charles Whitman Shooter at the University of Texas; had a brain tumor in the aggression center
Three Conditions Under Which Frustration Leads to Aggression 1) How badly do you want your goal? 2) How badly is the goal blocked? 3) How frequently is the goal blocked?
Bandura Bobo Doll study
Buss aggression machine Made people believe they were shocking a confederate
Anxiety over social disapproval In most cultures, anxiety over social disapproval would lead people away from aggressive behavior BUT in a gang-like environment, social disapproval will lead people TOWARDS aggressive behavior
Aggression guilt People who tend to feel very guilty after doing something aggressive are less likely to be aggressive
Internal/External Locus of Control as it pertains to aggression Internal locus people engage more in instrumental aggression.
Four Individual Differences that Determine Aggression 1) Aggression guilt 2) Locus of control 3) Type A personality 4) Anxiety over social approval
Created by: bamkapowxo