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Med Terms: Vocab


Frontal Plane Vertical from left to right - divides into front and back (Coronal Plane)
Transverse Plane Horizontal cut - top and bottom
Sagittal Plane Vertical from front to back - divides body into right and left
Longitudinal Section lengthwise slice along the long axis of a structure
Cross Section slice perpendicular to the long axis of a structure
deep further below from surface
superficial nearer to the surface
medial towards the midline - to the middle
lateral away from midline - to the side
distal farthest (away from beginning of structure)
proximal closer or nearest
posterior (dorsal) to the back
anterior (ventral) to the belly side of body
Cephalic (superior) above
Caudal (inferior) below
prone on stomach
supine on the back
Popliteal creased area behind the knee
palmar palm of hand
plantar sole of the foot
trunk torso, excluding head and extremities
umbilical region around the navel
Antecubital in front of the elbow
axillary underarm area
viscera body's internal organs
Dorsal cavity (back) cranial and spinal cavities
Ventral cavity (front) Thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity
cranial cavity inside skull; contains brain
meninges membrane sac that protects spinal cord and brain
spinal cavity formed by canal thru vertebrae; contains spinal cord
thoracic cavitiy enclosed by ribs and separated from abdominopelvic cavity by diaphragm; contains lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea, aorta, and thymus; subdivided into one central and 2 side regions
mediastinum central region of thoracic cavity; contains heart, trachea, esophagus, aorta, thymus; heart is encased in the pericardial sac
plural cavities side regions of thoracic cavity; each contains a lung
pleura sac protecting lungs
abdominopelvic cavity subdivided into abdominal and pelvic regions
peritoneum membrane covering that protects the abdominopelvic cavity
abdominal cavity stomach, liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, colon & intestine portions
pelvic cavity bladder, ureters, uretha, portions of colon & intestine. Also male and female parts
Right Upper Quadrant Lg pt of liver; R kidney; colon; sm pt of pancreas; gallbladder; sm intestines
Left Upper Quadrant Sm pt of liver; spleen; L kidney; stomach; colon; lg pt of pancreas; sm intestines
Right Lower Quadrant colon; sm intestines; R ureter; appendix; R ovary & fallopian tube; R vas deferens & seminal vesicle
Left Lower Quadrant L ureter; colon; intestine; sigmoid colon, L ovary & fallopian tube; : vas deferens & seminal vesicle
bone graft uses piece of bone to replace lost bone or fuse two bones together
bone scan use of radioactive dye to visualize bones; stress fractures, bone cancer
carpal tunnel syndrome repetitive motion disorder caused by pressure on tendons and nerves in wrist
closed fracture broken bone with no skin wound; simple fracture
comminuted fracture bone shatters into many small segments
compound fracture broken bone with open skin wound; open fracture
compression fracture bone break causing loss of height of vertebral body; may result from trauma or osteoporosis in elderly
contacture abnormal shortening of muscle fibers, tendons, or connective tissue making it difficult to stretch muscle
creatine kinase muscle enzyme in skeletal and cardiac muscle; assoc w heart attach, muscular dystrophy, etc
deep tendon reflexes involuntary muscle contraction in response to reflex hammer
dislocation bones in join displaced from normal alignment; ends of bone no longer in contact
fibromyalgia chronic aching and pain in muscles
fixation procedure to stablize fractured bone while it heals; external includes casts, splints, pins thru skin; internal includes pins, plates, rods, screws, etc put in during open reduction
fracture broken bone
greenstick fracture common in kids, incomplete break
herniated nucleus pulposus protrusion of intervertebral disk between 2 vertebra - herniated or ruptured disk
impacted fracture one bone fragment pushed into another
kyphosis abnormal outward curve or thoracic spine; humpback
lordosis abnormal curve in cervical and lumbar spine; swayback
muscle atrophy loss of muscle bulk; muscle wasting
muscular dystrophy group of inherited diseases involving progressive muscle atrophy
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs mild pain relief and anti-inflammatory
oblique fracture fracture line runs along angle to shaft of bone
orthosis brace or splint to correct or prevent deformities
osteoarthritis arthritis caused by loss of cartilage cushion
osteogenic sarcoma most common bone cancer (osteocytes)
pathologic fracture not caused by trauma; break from diseased or weakened bone
prostesis artificial device for body part
radiography diagnostic imaging procedure using x-rays; visualizing bones and joints
reduction realigning bone; closed bones are externally moved; open bones are manipulated thru surgical incision
rheumatiod arthritis autoimmune disease; swelling, stiffness, pain, denigration of cartilage in joints caused by chronic soft tissue inflammation
scoliosis abnormal lateral curve of spine
spasm sudden, involuntary, strong muscle contraction
spina bifida birth defect when vertebra fails to fully form around spinal cord
spiral fracture fracture line spirals around shaft of bone; twisting injury, slow to heal
sprain ligament injury
strain muscle or tendon injury
stress fracture slight bone break caused by repetitive low impact forces
total hip, shoulder or knee arthroplasty surgical reconstruction of hip, shoulder or knee
transverse fracture break with line straight across shaft of bone
Aneurysm stroke- widening of artery due to weakness in arterial wall
angina pectoris severe chest pain
arrhythmia irregular heart beat
auscultation listening to sounds within body
blood pressure measurement of pressure exerted by blood against walls of blood vessel
bradycardia abnormally slow HR (below 60 bpm)
cardiac arrest complete stoppage of all heart activity; both electrical signals and muscle contractions
cardiac catherization passage of tube thru veins into heart
cardiac enzymes proteins release by heart muscle when damaged
cardiopulmonary resuscitation external compressions to rib cage in order to maintain blood floor and air movement in lungs
congenital septal defect birth defect in wall separating the two chambers of the heart
coronary artery bypass graft vein grafted to re route blood around occluded artery in heart
congestive heart failure heart weakens and starts to fail - muscle can not pump blood forcefully enough
coronary artery disease chronic heart disease caused by arteriosclerosis of coronary arteries
deep vein thrombosis blood clots in deep veins
defibrillation using defibrillator to shock heart to converting arrhythmia back to regular heart beat
dopplar ultrasonography ultrasound used to create moving image for visualizing blood flow & heart function
electricaradiography records electrical activity of the heart
endarterectomy removal of inner lining of artery to remove plaque (roto rooter)
fibrillation abnormal quivering of heart fibers
heart murmur abnormal heart sound
heart valve prolapse flaps of heart valve are too loose and fail to shut tightly; allows backwards flow of blood
heart valve stenosis flaps of heart valve are too stiff and can't open fully or shut tightly; blood can flow backwards
hotler monitor portable ECG monitor worn to assess heart throughout the day
hypertension high BP (above 140/90)
hypo tension low BP
implantable cardioverter defibrillator electrical device implanted in chest cavity; applies shock to stop arrhythmia's
infarct area of tissue death caused by ischemia
myocardial infarction heart attack; infarct of heart muscle caused of occlusion of one or more coronary arteries
myocardial ischemia loss of blood supply to heart muscle tissue due to occlusion of coronary artery
occlusion blockage of blood vessel or other hollow structure
pacemaker electrical device that artificially stimulates contraction of heart muscle; treats bradycardia
sphygmomanometer inst for measuring blood pressure
stent stainless steel tube placed in blood vessel to widen
stress test evaluates cardio fitness; ekg and oxygen levels taken while pt exercises; can also be chemically induced
tachycardia fast HR (over 100 bpm)
transesophegeal echocardiography pt swallows ultrasound head to better visualize internal cardiac structures
varicose veins swollen veins usually in legs
venipuncture puncture to withdraw blood or inject meds in veins
AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) late stage of HIV; cells of immune system lose their ability to fight off infection
allergy hypersensitivity to common environmental substance, to food, or to medication
anaphylactic shock severe allergic reaction
antihistamine med that blocks effects of histamine released by body during allergic reactions
autoimmune disease body's immune sys attacks its own cells as if they were pathogens
corticosteroids meds to treat autoimmune disease due to strong anti inflammatory
elephantiasis blockage of lymphatic vessels that causes extreme tissue edema
hives wheals during allergic reaction
hodgkin disease cancer of lymphatic cells found in lymph nodes
immunodeficiency immune system that is unable to respond properly to pathogens
immunosuppressant med to block actions of immune syst; used to prevent rejection of transplanted organ
inflammation tissue response to injury; redness, pain, swelling, etc
mononucleosis (mono0 acute viral infection of lymphoid tissues with abnormal amt white blood cells
opportunistic infection infections in pt with compromised immune systems
vaccination exposure to weakened pathogen to simulate immune response
arterial blood gasses lab test for levels of oxygen and co2 present in blood
asphyxia lack of oxygen (suffocation)
aspirate inhaling foreign object or fluid into airways
asthma bronchospasm, excessive mucous, inflammation, airway constriction, etc
atelectasis lung tissue collapes preventing exchange of ox and co2
bronchogenic carcinoma malignant lunch tumor that originates in bronchi
chronic obstructive pulmonary diasease progressive, chronic condition where air flow to lungs is decreased , severe dyspnea
cystic fibrosis genetic condtion that causes pt to produce very thick mucus; results in severe congestion of lungs
emphysema pulmonary cond resulting from destruction of alveolar walls leading to overinflated alveoli
hyperventilation breathe too quickly (tachypnea) & too deeply (hyperpnea)
hypoventilation breathe too slowly (bradypnea) & too shallowly (hypopnea)
hypoxis insufficient oxygen in body
influenze acute viral infection of the airways
phlegm thick mucus secreted through mouth (sputnum)
pleurisy inflammation of pleura
pneumonia acute inflammatory condition of the lung
pneumothorax collapse of lung bc of air or gas in pleural cavity
postural drainage drainage of secretions from bronchi by placing pt in specific postions
pulmonary edema lung tissue retains excessive fluid
pulmonary embolism blood clot or air bubble in pulm artery or one of its branches
purulent containing pus
rales abnormal crackling sound caused by mucus or fluid in airways
respiratory rate number of breaths per minute
sudden infant death syndrome unexpected and unexplained death of well infant
alzheimer disease chronic brain condition; progressive
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis disease with muscular weakness and atrophy due to degeneration of motor neurons of spinal cord
anticonvulsant medication to reduce excitability of neurons
brain tumor intracranial mass, can grow and cause pressure on normal brain tissue
cerebral contusion bruising of brain from impact; symptoms last longer than 24 hrs
cerebral palsy non-progressive brain damage resulting from defect in fetal development or lack of oxygen
cerebrovascular accident development of brain infarct due to loss in blood supply to brain; stroke
coma profound unconsciousness
concussion brain shaken inside of skull due to impact; symptoms last less than 24 hrs
dementia progressive impairment of intellectual function that interferes with ADL's
epilepsy seizures and loss of consciousness as result of uncontrolled neuron electrical activity
hydrocephalus buildup of cerebrospinal fluid within brain (children0
lumbar puncture puncture to withdraw fluid for examination or injection of medication
migraine severe head pain, sensitivity
multiple sclerosis inflammatory autoimmune disease or CNS; myelin around neurons damaged
paralysis temp or perm loss of muscle function and movement
Parkinson disease chronic disorder of nervous sys with tremors, muscle weakness, rigidity
seizure sudden uncontrollable onset of symptoms
shingles painful blisters along nerve path
spina bifida congenital defect in walls of spinal canal where vertebrae do not close
spinal cord injury damage to spinal cord as result of injury
subdural hematoma mass of blood underneath dura mater
syncope fainting
transient ischemic attack can lead to stroke - temp reduction of blood supply to brain
Created by: Tarynlynn02
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