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Chp 15

Personality

QuestionAnswer
Personality an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
Free association in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
Psychoanalysis Freud's theory of personality that attributes our thoughts and actions to uncounscious motives and conflicts; techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
Unconscious (Freud) a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories (contemporary) information processing of which we are unaware
Id contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. Id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification
Ego largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain
Superego part of personality that represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judfment (the conscience) and for future aspirations.
Psychosexual stages childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones
Oedipus complex boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
Identification process by which children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos
Fixation a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, where conflicts were unresolved
Defense mechanisms (PA theory) ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
Repression (PA Theory) basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts feelings, and memories from consciousness
Reaction formation psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings
Projection psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
Rationalization defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions
Displacement psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet
Projective Test personality test, provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests throu the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
Rorschach inkblot test most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
Collective unconscious Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history
Unconditional positive regard (rogers) an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
Self concept all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "who am I?"
Trait A characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports
Personality inventory questionaire (usually true/false or agree/disagree) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits
Minnesota Multiphasic Peronality Inventory (MMPI) most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders, aslo now used for other screening purposes
Empirically drived test test (like MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups
Social-cognitive perspective views behavior as influenced by the ineteraction between persons and their social context
reciprocal determinism interacting influences between personality and environmental factors
Personal control our sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless
Spotlight effect overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (like we are under a spotlight)
self-esteem one's feelings of high or low self-worth
self-serving bias readiness to perceive oneself favorably
Individualism giving priority to one's own goals over group goals, and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications
Collectivism giving priority to the goals of one's group (ie extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly
Terror-management theory proposes that faith in one's worldview and the pursuit of self-esteem provide protection against a deeply rooted fear of death
Created by: ms.mhill