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Chapter 13

Motivation and Emotion

QuestionAnswer
What is a motive? A stimulus that moves a person to behave in ways designed to accomplish a specific goal. They CAN NOT be measured directly.
What is a need? A condition in which we require something we lack.
What is a biological need? A need based on physical deprivation.
What is a psychological need? "Learned" needs that are not based on deprivation.
What is a drive? A force that motivates a human being to take action to fulfill both biological and psychological needs.
True or false: Drives become stronger the longer we are deprived of something we need or want. TRUE
What are the characteristics of the Instinct Theory? States that a person's behavior is beyond their control and based upon natural inclinations. However, this is outdated because it cannot describe all behaviors.
Who proposed the Instinct Theory? William James and William McDougal.
What are the characteristics of the Drive-Reduction Theory? Suggests that people experience a drive to reduce stress and unpleasant tension. Their behaviors are based on having learned to do whatevere it is that will reduce the tension.
What is homeostasis? When basic (physical) drives are satisfied.
Who proposed the Drive-Reduction Theory? Clark Hull in the 1930s.
What is a criticism of the Drive-Reduction Theory? Some behaviors increase tension, such as riding a roller coaster.
What are the characteristics of Humanistic Theory? It is the belief that the drive for personal growth outweighs the drive for basic needs. For example, people are willing to tolerate pain, hunger, and other tensions to achieve personal growth.
Who developed the Humanistic Theory? Abraham Maslow.
What are the characteristics of the Socio-Cultural theory? Believes that people are motivated by social, religious, and cultural customs.
Is it possible to feel hungry if your stomach has been removed? YES.
What is hunger linked to? Brain Chemistry, Body Chemistry (Blood Sugar Level), and External Forces.
What is glucose? The simple sugar that provides us with energy.
What are glucostats? The type of neoron in our body that is responsible for monitoring our glucose levels.
How do we "feel" when glocose (blood sugar) levels in our blood are low? hungry
How do we "feel" when glucose (blood sugar) levels in our blood are appropriate? Full or not hungry.
What does Insulun do and where is it produced? Converts glucose into stored fat and is produced in the pancreas.
What anatomical structure in the brain is the on/off switch for hunger? The Hypothalamus.
What is the lateral Hypothalamus? The on switch for hunger.
What is the Vendromedial Hypothalamus? The off switch for hunger.
How does the body strive to maintain a particular target weight? Everyone is born with a certain number of fat cells and a certain "target" weiht that is genetically determined.
What happens to fat cells after a person has been on a diet for a while? They shrink and the body then tries to replenish them by making you feel hungry and getting you to eat.
What are some causes of overeating? Peer pressure, depression, access to food, and advertising & marketing.
What are stimulus motives? A desire to receive sensory stimulation, to engage in activities, and to explore and/or manipulate one's environment.
What are the effects of sensory deprivation? Sleepiness, boredom, irratibility, uncomfort, and hallucinations.
What are some reasons why people and animals explore and manipulate their environment? People crave constant "new" stimuli.
What is meant by the term Achievement Motivation? Describes people who are driven, goal oriented, results oriented, and that set high personal standards.
What influences Achievement Motivation? Performance goals and learning goals.
What are performance goals? very percise goals such as college admission, earning an award or earning praise. These are also known as extrinsic rewards (or extrinsic motivation)
What are learning goals? describes people who are motivated to learn because they find it enjoyable. This is known as Intrinsic rewards and intrinsic motivation.
How does cognitive consistency theory relate to motivation? Behavior is congruent to your thinking.
How does cognitive- dissonance theory explain motivation? People are motivated to reduce inner tensions about behavior that they are engaged in that they know goes against their core beliefs and values.
What is Affiliation Motivation? This theory believes that people are motivated to make friends and to become part of a group.
What are emotions? states of feeling that involve physical arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience.
What are the key concepts of the oponent-process theory? Emotions often come in pairs: love/hate, happiness/sadness, etc. There are relatively no neutral emotions.
What are the key concepts of the Common Sense Approach? The interpretation of a situation produces an emotional response which then triggers a behavior.
What are the key concepst of the James-Lange theory? Emotions follow or come after a situation
What are the key concepts of the Cannon-Bard theory? You feel an emotion that is caused by an external stimuli or you feel an emotion to a possible situation that you are anticipating.
What are the key concepts of the Cognitive Appraisal theory? People's emotions are based on their perception of a situation.
Created by: cindysmile
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