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FlatWorld Psy. Ch.8

Chapter 8 Terms

Memory The ability to store and retrieve information over time.
Cognition The processes of acquiring and using knowledge.
Episodic Memory Explicit memory about the firsthand experiences that we have had.
Semantic Memory Explicit memory of knowledge of facts and concepts about the world.
Recall Memory Test A measure of explicit memory that involves determining whether information has been seen or learned before.
Relearning (or savings) A measure of explicit memory that involves assessing how much more quickly information is processed or learned when it is studied again after it has already been learned but then forgotten.
Implicit Memory The influence of experience on behavior, even if the individual is not aware of those influences.
Procedural Memory Implicit memory about our often unexplainable knowledge of how to do things.
Priming Changes in behavior as a result of experiences that have happened requently or recenlty.
Sensory Memory The brief storage of sensory information.
Iconic Memory The visual sensory memory.
Echoic Memory The auditory sensory memory.
Short-term Memory (STM) Memory where small amounts of information can be kept for more than a few seconds but less than one minute.
Working Memory The processes that we use to make sense of, modify, interpret, and store information in STM.
Maintenance Rehearsal The process of repeating information mentally or out loud with the goal of keeping it in short-term memory.
Chunking The process of organizing information into smaller groups (chunks), thereby increasing the number of items that can be held in short-term memory.
Long-term memory (LTM) Memory storage that can hold information for days, months, and years.
Encoding The process by which we place the things that we experience into memory.
Elaborative Encoding Learning by processing new information in ways that make it more relevant.
Spacing Effect The fact that learning is better when the same amount of study is spread out over periods of time than it is when it occurs closer together or at the same time.
Retrieval The process of reactivating information that has been stored in memory.
Tip-of-the-Tongue Phenomenon The experience of being certain that we know something that we are trying to recall, but yet we cannot quite come up with it.
Context-Dependent Learning An increase in retrieval when the external situation in which information is learned matches the situation in which it is remembered.
State-Dependent Learning An increase in retrieval that occurs when the individual is tested in the same physiological or psychological state as during encoding.
Primacy Effect The tendency to better remember stimuli that are presented early in a list.
Recency Effect The tendency to better remember stimuli that are presented later in a list.
Retroactive Interference Memory impairment that occurs when learning something new impairs memory for information that was learned earlier.
Proactive Interference Memory impairment that occurs when earlier learning impairs our ability to encode information that we try to learn later.
Category A network of associated memories that have features in common with each other.
Prototype The member of the category that is most average or typical of the category.
Schema A pattern of knowledge in long-term memory that helps us organize information.
Long-term Potentiation (LTP) The development of memory that occurs through strengthening of the synaptic connections between neurons.
Amnesia A memory disorder that involves the inability to remember information.
Retrograde Amnesia A memory disorder that involves the inability to retrieve events that occurred before a given time.
Anterograde Amnesia A memeory disorder that involves the inability to transfer information from short-term to long-term memory.
Cognitive Biases Errors in memory or judgment that are caused by the inappropriate use of cognitive processes.
Source Monitoring The ability to accurately identify the source of a memory.
Sleeper Effect Attitude change that occurs over time when we forget the source of information.
Confirmation Bias A cognitive bias that results in the tendency to verify and confirm our existing memories rather than to challenge and disconfirm them.
Functional Fixedness A cognitive bias that occurs when people's schemas prevent them from using an object in new and nontraditional ways.
Misinformation Effect Errors in memory that occur when new information influences existing memories.
Overconfidence A cognitive bias that involves the tendency for people to be too certain about their ability to accurately remember events and to make judgments.
Flashbulb Memory A vivid and emotional memory of an unusual event that people believe they remember very well.
Heuristic An information-processing strategy that is useful in many cases by may lead to errors when misapplied.
Representativeness Heuristic A cognitive bias that may occur when we base our judgments on information that seems to represent, or match, what we expect will happen.
Availability Heuristic A cognitive bias that involves the tendency to make judgments of the frequency or likelihood that an event occurs on the basis of the ease with which the event can be retrieved from memory.
Salient Attracting attention.
Cognitive Accessibility The extent to which knowledge is activated in memory, and thus likely to be used in cognition and behavior.
Counterfactual thinking A cognitive bias that involves the tendency to think about and experience events according to "what might have been."
Created by: 535959219
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