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PSY110 ch 10-12 ckc

Mastering the World of Psychology study guide section one

On the Social Readjustment Rating Scale, only negative life changes are considered stressful. T/F False
The Social Readjustment Rating Scale takes account of the individual's perceptions of the stressfulness of the life changes in assigning stress points. T/F False
Posttraumatic stress disorder is a prolonged and severe stress reaction that results when a number of common sources of stress occur simultaneously. T/F False
According to Lazarus, hassles typically account for more life stress than major life changes. T/F True
Lazarus's approach to measuring hassles and uplifts considers individual perceptions of stressful events. T/F True
Travis cannot decide whether to go out or stay home and study for his test. What kind of conflict does he have? approach-avoidance
Sources of workplace stress include a) sexual harassment. b) discrimination. c) balancing family and work demands. d) all of the above. all of the above
What group that has received the most attention from researchers interested in the association between stress and racism? African Americans
The biomedical model focuses on _____; the biopsychosocial model focuses on _____. illness; health and illness
Lowered immune responce has been associated with _____ and _____. stress and depression
The stage of the general adaptation syndrome marked by intense physiological efforts to adapt to the stressor is the _____ stage. resistance
susceptibility to illness increases during the _____ stage of the general adaptation syndrome. exhaustion
Selye focused on the ____ aspects of stress; Lazarus focused on the _____ aspects of stress. physiological; psychological
During secondary appraisal, a person evaluates his or her coping resources and considers options for dealing with the stressor. T/F True
Coping aimed at reducing, modifying, or eliminating a source of stress is called _____ coping; that aimed at reducing an emotional reaction to stress is called _____ coping. problem-focused; emotion-focused
People typically use a combination of problem-focused and emotion-focused coping when dealing with a stressful situation. T/F True
Some research suggests that optimists are more stress-resistant than pessimists. T/F True
Close, supportive relationships with family and friends is not a dimension of psychological hardiness. T/F False
Social support tends to reduce stress but is unrelated to health outcomes. T/F False
Most research has pursed the connection between the Type A behavior pattern and _____. coronary heart disease.
Recent research suggests that the most toxic component of the Type A behavior pattern is _____. hostility.
Stress causes cancer. T/F False
Men seek medical care more often than women. T/F False
Which ethnic group has the highest rate of death from liver disease? Native Americans
Which is the most important factor leading to disease and death? a) unhealthy lifestyle b) a poor health care system c) environmental hazards d) genetic disorders a) unhealthy lifestyle
Which health-compromising behaior is responcible for the most deaths? a) overeating b) smoking c) lack of exercise d) excessive alcohol use b) smoking
_____ damages virtually every organ in the body. Alcohol
Viral STDs are those that can be effectively treated with antibiotics. T/F False
The incidene of AIDS in the United States is highest among what group? homosexuals
To improve cardiovascular fitness, aerobic exercis should be done a) 15 minutes a day. b) 1 hour a day. c) 20 to 30 minutes five times a week. d) 20 to 30 minutes three or four times a week. c) 20 to 30 minutes five times a week.
Alternative health treatments have proven to be just as effective as traditional approaches to illness. T/F False
Psychoanalysis is both a theory of personality and a therapy for the treatment of psychological disorders. T/F True
Freud considered the _____ to be the primary motivating force of human behavior. unconscious
The part of the personality that would make you eat, drink, and be merry is your ____. id
you just found a gold watch in a darkened movie theater. Which part of your personality would urge you to turn it in to the lost and found? superego
The part of the personality that determines appropriate ways to satisfy biological urges is the _____. ego
Defense mechanisms are used only by psychologically unhealthy individuals. T/F False
Repression is used to avoid unpleasant thought. T/F True
According to Freud, the sex instinct arises at _____. birth.
List Freud's stages in the order in which they occur. oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
Rich's excessive concern wth cleanliness and order could indicate a fixation at the _____ stage. anal
When a young boy develops sexual feelings towards his mother and hostility towards his father, he is said to have a conflict called the _____ _____. Oedipus Complex
According to Freud, which of the following represents a primary source of influence on personality? a) heredity b) life experiences after beginning school c) the relative strengths of the id, ego, and superego d) problems expereinced during adolescanc c) the relative strengths of the id, ego, and superego
In Jung's theory, the inherited part of the personality that stores the experiences of humankind is the _____ unconscious. collective
Which personality theorist believed that the basic human drive is to overcome and compensate for inferiority and strive for superiority and significance? Alfred Adler
On which of the following did Horney focus? a) psychoanalysis b) trait theory c) feminine psychology d) humanistic psychology c)feminine psychology
Humanistic psychologists would say that researchers could focus primarily on observable behavior. T/F False
Which psychologist identified characteristics that he believed self-actualized people share? Abraham Maslow
Which psychologist believed that individuals often do not become fully functional persons because, in childhood, they fail to recieve unconditional positive regard from their parents? Carl Rogers
Self-esteem includes assessments of competence in different domains such as academics and sports. T/F True
According to Allport, the kind of trait that is a defining characteristic of one's personality is a _____ trait. cardinal
According to Cattell, the differences between people are explained by the number of source traits they possess. T/F True
Who claimed that psychologists can best understand personality by assessing people on two major dimensions, Extraversion and Neuroticism? Hans Eysenck
According to consensus among trait theorists, there are _____ major dimensions of personality. 5
Behavioral geneticists have found that the shared family environment has a _____ effect on personality development. negligible
Children adopted at birth are more similar in personality to their adoptive parents than to their biological parents. T/F False
Who initiated the situation-trait debate? Walter Mischel
Bandura's concept of reciprocal determinism refers to the mutual effects of a person's behavior, personal/cognitive factors, and the environment. T/F True
People low in self-efficacy persist in their efforts. T/F False
Who proposed the concept of locus of control? Julian Rotter
Which personality test uses inventory to diagnose psychopathology? MMPI-2
Which personality test uses inventory to assess typical personality? CPI
Which projective personality test uses inkblots? Rorschach
Which projective personality test uses drawings of ambiguous human situations? TAT
Which personality test uses inventory to assess personality types? MBTI
Clay has an unconscious resentment toward his father. Which test might best detect this? TAT
My mother was a good person is the type of item that might appear on the MMPI-2. T/F True
It is relatively easy to differentiate normal behavior from abnormal behavior. T/F False
The DSM-IV-TR is a manual that is published by the American Psychiatric Association and is used to diagnose psychological disorders. T/F True
Anxiety disorders are the least common of all psychological disorders. T/F False
Psychologists often use principles of learning to treat phobias. T/F True
Obsessive-compulsice disorder appears to be caused primarily by psychological rather than biological factors. False
Name the anxiety disorder. Lana refuses to eat in front of others for fear her hand will shake. social phobia
Name the anxiety disorder. Ronin is excessively anxious about his health and his job, even though there is no concrete reason to be. generalized anxiety disorder
Name the anxiety disorder. Kyla has been housebound for four years. agoraphobia
Name the anxiety disorder. Jackson gets hysteical when a dog approaches hum. specific phobia
Name the anxiety disorder. Lauren has incapacitating attacks of anxiety that come on her suddenly. panic phobia
Name the anxiety disorder. Micheal repeatedly checks his doors, windows, and appliences before he goes to bed. obsessive-compulsive disorder
Montell has periods in which he is so depressed that he becomes suicidal. At other tymes he is wildly euphoric. He would probably receive the diagnosis of bipolar disorder. T/F True
What type of factor is this? Negative thoughts about oneself, the world, and one's future. cognitive factor
What type of factor is this? Hereditary predisposition or biochemical imbalance. biological factor
What type of factor is this? Negative life events. stress
Drugs are seldom used in the treatment of mood disorders. T/F False
The suicide rate is lower for African American males than for White males. T/F True
This is an example of what symptom of schizophrenia? Brendon believes he is Moses. delusions of grandeur
This is an example of what symptom of schizophrenia? Dina thinks her family is spreading rumors about her. delusions of persecution
This is an example of what symptom of schizophrenia? Avi hears voices cursing him. hallucinations
This is an example of what symptom of schizophrenia? Dean laughs at tragedies and cries when he hears a joke. inappropriate affect
There is substantial research evidence that unhealthy family interaction patterns is a cause of schizophrenia. T/F False
What subtype of schizophrenia is this? Amy stands for hours in the same strange position. catatonic schizophrenia
What subtype of schizophrenia is this? Trevin believes the CIA is plotting to kill him. paranoid schizophrenia
What subtype of schizophrenia is this? Matt makes silly faces, laughs a lot, and masterbates openly. disorganized schizophrenia
What subtype of schizophrenia is this? Francesca has the symptoms of schizophrania but does not fit any one type. undifferentiated schizophrenia
Somatoform disorders have physiological rather than psychological causes. T/F False
Dissociative disorders are often associated with trauma. T/F True
Name the psychological disorder. Jan is convinced he has some serious disease, although his doctors can find nothing physically wrong. hypochondriasis
Name the psychological disorder. Lonnie is found far away from his home town, calling himself by another name and having no memory of the past. dissociative fugue
Natalia suddenly loses her sight, but doctors can find no physical reason for the problem. conversion disorder
colane has no memory of being in the boat with other family members the day her older brother drowned. dissociative amnesia
Cassandra has no memory for blocks of time in her life and often finds clothing in her closet that she cannot remember buying. dissociative identity disorder
_____ are disorders in which sexual urges, fantasies, and behaviors involve children, other nonconsenting partners, or objects. Paraphilias
Personality disorders typically cause problems in social relationships and at work. T/F True
Bruce lies, cheats, and exploits others without feeling guilty. His behavior best fits the diagnosis of _____ personality disorder. antisocial
Created by: ccawood0002