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RT Chapter 4

Principles of Infection Control

antiseptics Tending to inhibit the growth and reproduction of microorganisms
bactericidal Destructive to Bacteria
bacteriostatic Tending to restrain bacteria growth
cohorting Collection or sampling of individuals who share a common characteristic, as members of the same age or same sex, or those sharing a common infection
contact precautions Safeguards designed to reduce the risk of transmission of epidemiologically important microorganisms by direct or indirect contact
disinfection Process of destroying at least the vegetative phase of pathogenic microorganisms by physical or chemical means
droplet nuclei Residue of evaporated water droplets; due to their small size (.5 to 12 mm) droplet nuclei can remain suspended in the air for long periods of time
droplet precaution safeguards designed to reduce the risk of droplet transmission of infectious agents
fomiles non living materials, such as bed linens or equipment, which may transmit pathogenic organisms to a person who comes into contact with the object
Healthcare Associated Infections (HAI) Infections that patients acquire during the course of receiving medical treatment
Healthcare Infection Control Practice Advisory Committee (HICPAC) Committee that sets guidelines for infectious control practices in various health care settings
High Efficiency Particulate Air/Aerosol Filters (HEPA) A filter with an efficiency rate of 99.97% used on various respiratory equipment such as ventilators, that prevent the spread of infection
immunocompromised host immunodeficient patient highly susceptible to infection
nosocomial infections infection acquired after hospitalization
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) A branch of the US department of labor responsible for regulation pertaining to on-the-job safety
respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette The strategy of preventing transmission of respiratory infections at the first point of contact within a health care setting such as physicians' offices
sporicidal Destructive to the spore of bacteria
standard precautions Guidelines recommended by the centers for disease control and prevention to reduce the risk of transmission of blood-borne and other pathogens in hospitals.
sterilization Complete destruction of all microorganisms, usually by heat/ chemical means
surveillance (bacteriologic) ongoing process designed to ensure that infection control procedures are working, generally involves equipment, microbiology identification, and epidemiological investigation
virucidal An agent that destroys or inactivates viruses
sodium hypochlorite Another name for a fast-acting, inexpensive, broad-spectrum disinfectant known as bleach
steam sterilization Most common, efficient and easiest form of sterilization method that uses moist heat in the form of steam under pressure
personal protective equipment variety of barriers and respirators used alone or in a combination to protect mucous membranes, skin and clothing from contact with infectious agents
airborne isolation Isolation techniques intended to reduce the risk of selected infectious agents transmitted by "small droplets" of aerosol particles
standard precautions Precautions applied to the care of all patients in all health care settings
extended precautions This is for patients who are known or suspected to be infected with pathogens that require additional control measure to prevent transmission
flash sterilization An acceptable practice for processing cleaned patient care items that cannot be packaged, sterilized, and stored before use which is done by a process of modification of conventional steam sterilization
Created by: brianna_lynn