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PS 334 Chp. 5

The characteristics of people as males or females. gender
A set of expectations that prescribes how females and males should think, act, and feel. gender role
How do androgen levels in puberty relate to boys’ sexual activity? Rising androgen levels increased sexual activity.
How do androgen levels in puberty relate to girls’ sexual activity? It doesn't.
What seems to have a stronger influence on girls’ sexual activity? Girls relationships with friends
A longitudinal study from 3 to 27 years of age found that brain volume in the cerebral cortex (highest level of the brain) peaked at _____ years in girls and _____ years in boys. 10.5, 14.5
______________ matter, myelinization on the neural axons (which increases the speed of neural firing), increased for both girls and boys (Lenroot & others, 2007). white
The _________ matter (neuron’s cell body and dendrites) increases and then decreases in both sexes, peaking approximately 1 to 2 years earlier in girls (timeframe corresponding with pubertal maturation). gray
Theory stating that gender differences mainly result from the contrasting roles of females and males, with females having less power and status and controlling fewer resources than males. social role theory
Theory emphasizing that children's and adolescents' gender development occurs through observation and imitation of gender behavior, and through rewards and punishments they experience for gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate behavior. social cognitive theory of gender
When do children begin to show a clear preference for being with and liking same-sex peers? in middle and late childhood
Is same-sex education better than co-ed education for children? it is 50/50
Many music videos and some other television shows are highly stereotyped and slanted toward a _________________audience. male
Broad categories that reflect out impressions and beliefs about females and males. gender stereotypes
Do gender stereotypes still exist in today’s society? yes
Which gender stereotypes tend to be more rigid, boys’ or girls’ gender stereotypes? boys
Characterized by endorsement of traditional gender roles. Old-fashioned sexism
Characterized by the denial that there is still discrimination, antagonism toward women's demands, and lack of support for policies designed to help women. Modern sexism
What did Maccoby and Jacklin (1974) originally conclude about cognitive differences between males and females? Males have better math and visuospatial skills and females have better verbal abilities.
What does current research suggest about male/female differences in math skills, visuospatial skills, and verbal skills? Equal in math. Males better visuospatial. Females better in verbal.
Who is more likely to drop out of school, males or females? Males
Overall, which sex tends to show greater overall academic interest and achievement in the United States? Females
What is one of the most consistent gender differences between boys and girls that is found in all cultures and appears very early in children’s development? Boys are more physically aggressive
What, if any, gender differences occur in verbal aggression? Typically none but sometimes more pronounced in girls.
The language of conversation, establishing connections and negotiating relationships. Rapport talk
Talk that gives information; public speaking is an example. Report Talk
Do males or females enjoy rapport talk? females
Do males or females enjoy report talk? Males
Beginning in elementary school, boys are more likely to hide __________________ emotions, and girls are less likely to express emotions such as _______________________ that might hurt others’ feelings. negative, disappointment
Which sex typically shows less emotional self-regulation? Boys
The presence of a high degree of desirable feminine and masculine characteristics in the same individual. androgyny
What inventory is one of the most widely used to gender type individuals? The Bem Sex-Role Inventory
What four gender-role orientations are used to classify individuals according to their responses on this inventory? Masculine, feminine, androgynous, or undifferentiated
Which gender orientation is viewed as being most healthy and most competent in our society? Androgynous
Which gender orientation is viewed as being least competent? Undifferentiated
Discuss sex differences in access to education and completion rates in education around the world. Exceptions to these general trends occur in Western nations, ________________ and ____________________. Japan and the Philippines
In general, is it easier to teach androgyny to girls or to boys? girls
It is easier to teach androgyny before what grades? middle school grades
What does William Pollack (1999) mean by “a national crisis of boyhood” in his book Real Boys? He has concerns about boys who are taught to hide their emotions.
Why is there growing concern about who adopt a strong masculine role in adolescence? It increases problem behaviors.
The belief that, when an individual's competence is at issue, it should be conceptualized not on the basis of masculinity, femininity, or androgyny but, rather, on a person basis. gender-role transcendence
Hypothesis stating that psychological and behavioral differences between boys and girls become greater during early adolescence because of increased socialization pressure to conform to masculine and feminine gender roles. gender intensification hypothesis
As adolescent boys and girls grow older, do they tend to show more or less stereotypic gender behavior? less
What does Carol Gilligan mean when she states that girls experience life differently from boys—that girls have a “different voice”? Girls are more sensitive
What dilemma do girls confront in adolescence, according to Gilligan? choice of being either selfish or selfless
The greatest liabilities occurred for females who not only lacked a “voice” bit who emphasized the importance of ______________. appearance
Created by: gmoore730