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RADT 334 - Final

radiology physics final exam review

QuestionAnswer
effect of an increase in kVp on compton scatter decrease
energy range for photodisintegration 10 MeV
energy range for pair production 1.02 MeV
energy range for coherent scatter < 10 keV
interactions with matter occurring in the diagnostic energy range Compton scatter and photoelectric
The x-ray intensity is lower on the anode side of the tube because of the _____. anode heel effect
as the angle of a target gets bigger, the effective focal spot will get ______ bigger
the effective focal spot is ____ than the actual focal spot smaller
what makes a good contrast agent? high mass density, high atomic number
the difference in x-ray interaction by various body tissue differential absorption
differential absorption is dependent upon this kV, Z number, mass density
used to make a uniform density on a radiograph for a non uniform part thickness compensating filter
What happens to the x-ray beam when you increase the kV by 15% you get the effect of the mAs doubling (increase in density)
circuits on the operating console are _____ voltage low
how does AEC work? exposure ends once a certain radiation level reaches the image receptor
Voltage ripple of high-frequency generator <1%
Voltage ripple of single-phase generator 100%
Voltage ripple of three-phase, six-pulse generator 14%
Voltage ripple of three-phase, twelve-pulse generator 4%
If you have greater voltage ripple, you will have a ____ in image quality decrease
If you have greater voltage ripple, you will have a ____ in image quantity decrease
where radiation is made in the x-ray tube anode
where electrons strike the target to make x-rays focal spot
where electrons are boiled off filament
what keeps the electrons together in a cloud near the filament focusing cup
the kinetic energy of electrons is converted into mostly _____ in the x-ray tube heat
_______ of the kinetic energy of electrons is converted into x-rays <1%
two interactions that occur at the anode to produce radiation characteristic and bremsstrahlung
five interactions in matter coherent scatter, compton scatter, photoelectric absorption, pair production, photodisintegration
interaction at the anode where electron interacts with inner shell electron characteristic
interaction at the anode where electron interacts with nuclear field and slows bremsstrahlung
discrete portion of x-ray emission spectrum is from _____ radiation characteristic
continuous x-ray emission spectrum is from _____ radiation bremsstrahlung
to change the discrete x-ray emission spectrum, one would need to change this atomic number of target material
electrical charge of an atom 0
electrical charge of an electron negative
electrical charge of a proton positive
electrical charge of a neutron 0
name the orbital shells from innermost to the fourth outer shell K, L, M, N, O . . .
smallest part of an element atom
smallest part of electromagnetic energy photon
as the distance between the source and image increases, x-ray quantity at the image _____ decreases
as the wavelength of a photon increases, the energy of the photon ______ decreases
as the frequency of a photon increases, the energy of the photon _____ increases
like charges repel
unlike charges attract
unit of electric potential volt
unit of electric charge coloumb
unit of power Watt
unit of electric current amp
unit of electric resistance ohm
rate of doing work power
faraday proved what? a magnetic field in motion could produce an electric current
Oersted proved what? a current produces a magnetic field
an electric current is induced in a circuit if some part of that circuit is in a changing magnetic field defines ________ electromagnetic induction
removal of an electron from an atom ionization
electron removed from atom and atom it originated from ion pair
acronym for as low as reasonably achievable ALARA
basic quanities in mechanical physics mass, length, time
mass x distance force
KE of random motion of molecules heat
electrostatic force is directly proportional to the product of the electrostatic charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them coulomb's law
electric charge distribution is ______ in a diffuse nonconductor (electrified object - like a cloud) uniform
electric charge distribution is ______________ in a conductor (like a wire) concentrated along the sharpest curvature
xrays are produced in this part of the atom orbital shells
gamma rays are produced in this part of the atom nucleus
unit for patient dose rad, Gray
unit for occupational dose rem, Sievert
unit for radiation in air roentgen, Coulomb per kilogram
unit for radioactivity curie, Becquerel
1 R = 1 rad or 1 rem
SI unit of occupational dose Sievert
SI unit of patient dose Gray
Si unit of radiation in air gray in air, Air kerma, or Coulomb per kilogram
SI unit of radioactivity bequerel
what type of transformer has a single winding autotransformer
the kV meter is on the ____ side of the x-ray circuit primary
the mA meter is on the ____ side of the x-ray circuit secondary
as voltage is _____, amperage decreases increased
the focal spot selector is located in this portion of the x-ray circuit filament circuit
a step up transformer is used in what part of the circuit? between low and high voltage/between primary and secondary sides
a step down transformer is used in what part of the circuit? filament circuit
the step up transformer changes _____ into _____ volts; kilovolts
emission spectrum: increasing mAs increase amplitude
emission spectrum: increasing kV increase amplitude and shift to right
emission specturm: increase filtration decrease amplitude and shift to right
emission spectrum: increase atomic number of target material increase amplitude and shift to right
When distance is doubled, intensity of x-ray beam is ______ by _______. reduced; factor of four
controlling factors of beam quality kV, filtration
controlling factors of beam quantity mAs, kv, filtration - mAs being the main controlling factor
beam quantity is directly proportional to mAs
HVL is a measurement of beam quality
no ionization takes place in which of the radiation interactions with matter coherent
No more electrons can be boiled off of the filament because of this phenomenon space charge
What is a radiographic rating chart used for? maximum exposure times
ways to increase efficiency of x-ray production increase kV, increase atomic number of target material, use equipment with least voltage ripple
as the peak of the x-ray emission spectrum moves to the left, what is affected? How? beam quality, decreases
electrons boiled off of the filament and being attracted to tungsten plating the inside of the x-ray tube tube arcing
which way do electrons flow in the x-ray tube? cathode to anode
which side of the beam is "hotter" or more intense? cathode
varying power supplies to the x-ray circuit will be corrected by what component of the circuit? line voltage compensator
transformers only operate on this type of current AC
primary side- 200 turns; secondary side - 400 turns; primary voltage 110V; secondary voltage = ______ 220V
what would provide a DC? battery
V=IR is the formula for this law Ohm's law
if there are more windings on the primary side versus the secondary side of a transformer, you have a ________ transformer step down
types of induction self, mutual
prupose of a transformer change electric potential intensities
how does something become electrified? gains excess electrons
frequency is _______ proportional to wavelength inversely
What is constant with all electromagnetic energies? velocity
most damaging form of ionizing radiation alpha particle
type of ionizing radiation that travels the least distance alpha particle
sources of manmade ionizing radiation? atomic fallout, smoke detectors, nuclear power plants, medical x-rays
how does an x-ray tube cool primarily (what method is used)? radiation
The Z number determines this about the atom chemical element
how do you calculate atomic mass add protons and neutrons
unit of measurement for electricity joules or electron volts
any quantity of one type of molecule of at least 2 different elements chemically bonded together compound
combination of one or more types of atoms of various elements bonded together molecules
base quantities in mechanical physics mass, length, time
derived quantities in mechanical physics velocity, acceleration, momentum, work, volume
each electron shell is representative of this within the atom binding energies of electrons
person noted as describing elements being composed of identical atoms Dalton
person noted as describing atoms as being made of four different elements in varying quantities (earth, water, air, and fire) greeks
model of atom with hooks and eyes to account for chemical combination Dalton's
model of atom described similar to plum pudding Thomson's
person noted for introduction of a nuclear model where the atom had a small dense positively charged center surrounded by negative charged cloud of electrons Rutherford
model of atom with a central nucleus and well defined electron orbital paths Bohr's
SI unit for velocity m/s
SI unit for acceleration m/s(squared)
SI unit for work joule
SI unit for force Newton
atom with same atomic number but different atomic mass numbers isotope
protons in an atom determine the atom's _____. atomic number
sum of proton's and neutrons in an atom determine the atom's ______. atomic mass
symbol for atomic number Z
symbol for atomic mass number A
smallest particle of an element atom
smallest particle of a compound molecule
SI unit for mass kg
SI unit for time second
SI unit for length meter
one-half the range from crest to valley over which the sine wave varies amplitude
number of wavelengths that pass a point of observation per second frequency
rate of rise and fall of a sine wave frequency
velocity of electromagnetic radiation c
wavelength is represented by this greek letter lambda
distance from one crest to another wavelength
electromagnetic wave equation c=frequency x wavelength
E=mc(squared) can be used in radiology for what purpose calculating mass equivalence of x-ray photons
study of stationary electric charges electrostatics
study of moving electric charges electrodynamics
rotation of electrons on their axis electron spin
magnet created by a coil of wire with a current passing through it solenoid
ability of a material to attract the lines of magnetic field intensity magnetic permeability
degree to which material can be magnetized magnetic susceptibility
device that uses mechanical motion to create electrical energy generator
device that uses electrical energy to create mechanical motion motor
transformer uses self induction or mutual induction to _____ transform electrical energy into higher or lower intensities
Which type of circuit do the following laws apply: total R=R1+R2+R3; total I= I1=I2=I3; total V=V1+V2+V3 series
Which type of circuit do the following laws apply: total R=1/R1+1/R2+1/R3; total I= I1+I2+I3; total V=V1=V2=V3 parallel
kVp meter is located in this part of the x-ray circuit low-voltage
mA meter is located in this part of the x-ray circuit high-voltage
this circuit provides electrons for tube current filament
where would a step up transformer be located in an x-ray circuit between the primary and secondary sides
where would a step down transformer be located in an x-ray circuit? filament circuit
a full wave rectified single phase generator would have how many x-ray beam pulses per second? 120
a half wave rectified single phase generator would have how many x-ray beam pulses per second? 60
a full wave rectified three phase generator would have how many x-ray beam pulses per second? 360
what changes about the voltage waveform from primary to secondary side of the x-ray circuit amplitude
process of converting AC to DC rectification
a single excessive exposure will damage the x-ray tube in this way cracking of the anode
tungsten vaporization can cause this tube failure issue arcing
cooling charts for x-ray tubes demonstrate this thermal capacities and heat dissipation characteristics
induction motors use this to operate magnetic field
the x-ray tube is an example of this type of motor induction
mA setting on the operator console controls this in the x-ray beam quantity of electrons emitted through thermionic emission
kV settings on the operator console controls this in the x-ray beam penetrability/energy of the beam
to figure HU for a _________phase generator, multiply kVp x mA x s single
to figure HU for a ______ phase gnerator, multiply 1.4 x kvp x ma x s three
the maximum energy for an exposure taken at 90 kVp would be ____ 90 keV
increases in mass density of the absorber _____ (increases/decreases/do not affect) Compton and Photoelectric interactions increases
increases in atomic number of the absorber _____ (increases/decreases/do not affect) photoelectric interactions increases
increases in atomic number of the absorber ______ (increases/decreases/do not affect) Compton interactions do not affect
major benefit of using high kVp decrease patient dose
Of Compton and photoelectric, even though both decrease as kV increases, which is more prevalent at higher kV? Compton
backscatter is caused by this interaction compton
interaction responsible for occupational dose compton
interaction responsible for patient dose photoelectric
interaction where no ionization takes place and results in an atom releasing an energy photon of equal energy in a different direction coherent
type of ionizing radiation most similar to an ejected electron beta emission
true/false: Physics is Phun! True!!
Created by: hschmuck1