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PSYC 160 Chapter 17


cultural variations within-group similarities and between-group differences (e.g. physical, psychological, behavioral/attitudinal). Two ingredients to explain: 1) universal underlying mechanism and 2) environmental diff to degree where underlying mechanism is activated
cultural personality psychology 3 goals of discovery: 1)principles underlying the cultural diversity 2) how human psychology shapes culture 3) how cultural understandings in turn shape our psychology
evoked culture way of considering culture that concentrates on phenomena that are triggered in different ways by different environmental conditions
high-variance conditions key variable triggering communal food sharing is degree of variability in food resources -> high-variance conditions allow substantial benefits to sharing
egalitarianism how much a particular group displays equal treatment of all individuals within the group
culture of honor [NISBETT] develops as result of economic means of subsistence of a culture. In cultures of honor, insults are highly offensive public challenges that must be met with direct confrontation and physical aggression.
transmitted culture representations originally in mind of one or more persons that are transmitted to minds of other people. Cultural variants that seem to be result of transmitted culture are: diff in moral values, self-concept, levels of self-enhancement.
balkanization social re-segregation following a time of peaceful integration and social diversity. Derived from breakup of Yugoslavia during 1990s, where national groups split apart and re-segregated formerly integrated countries in the Balkans
interdependence [MARKUS/KITAYAMA] First of two fundamental "cultural tasks" that have to be confronted. Involves how you are affiliated with/attached to/engaged in larger group of which you are a member. Includes relationship with other members and your embeddedness.
independence aka AGENCY [MARKUS/KITAYAMA], involves how you differentiate yourself from the larger group. Includes unique abilities, personal internal motives, personality dispositions, ways you separate from larger group
individualism sense of self as autonomous and independent, with priority given to personal goals
collectivism sense of interdependence with others in the group, giving priority to goals of their in-groups. Especially concerned about social relationships, more self-effacing, less likely to boast/brag about personal accomplishments.
acculturation process of, after arriving in new culture, adapting to ways of life and beliefs common in new culture
holistic way of processing information that involves attention to relationships, contexts, and links between the focal objects and the field as a whole
analytic to explain event with the object detached from its context, attributes of objects or people assigned to categories, and a reliance on rules about the categories to explain behavior
self-enhancement tendency to describe and present oneself using positive/socially valued attributes. Tendencies tend to be stable over time, and hence are enduring features of personality
within-culture variation variations within a particular culture that arise from several sources (e.g. diff in growing up in various SES, historical era, or racial context)
social class variability based on economic, educational, employment vars. In within-culture var terms - social class has effect on personality. Ex. lower class parents emphasize importance of obedience to authority, higher parents the importance of self-direction
historical era affects intracultural variation of personality (e.g. growing up during econ depression more anxious about job security/conservative spending style.) Disentangling effects of historical era extremely difficult - most personality measures not used earlier
cultural universals features common to everyone across cultures - human nature level of analyzing personality and define elements of personality we share with all/most other people
Whorfian Hypothesis of Linguistic Relativity 1956, language creates thought and experience - ideas that people think and emotions they feel are constrained by words that happen to exist in their language and culture and with which they use to express them
Lexical Hypothesis basis of lexical approach - important individual diff have become encoded wtihin natural language. Over ancestral time, diff between people that were important were noticed and words were invented to communicate them
Created by: jjangstar
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