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CNS Depressants

Ch. 13 Pharm

There are two types of CNS depressants sedatives and hypnotics
what do sedatives do inhibit nervousness, excitability, irritability does not cause sleep unless in lg doses, then hypnotic
what do hypnotics do cause sleep
what are two hypnotics barbituates benzodiazepines
Stages of sleep and 5 of time in ea stage 1 2-5% stage 2 50% stage 3 5% stage 4 10-15% REM 25-33%
What are benzodiazepines classified as sedative-hypnotic anxiolytic(relieve anxiety), do not suppress REM
What are two types of benzodiazepines "Benzo, Pam and the lambs" long acting- estazolam(Prosom), flurazepam(Dalmane), lorazepam(Ativan) Short acting- temazepam(Restoril), alprazolam(Xanax), triazolam(Halcion)
Nonbenzodiazepines treat insomnia Sonata, Ambien(hangover effects), Lunesta, Rozerem
what is unique about Ramelteon(Rozerem) does not cause CNS depression, no abuse, no withdrawal sx
To treat alcohol withdrawal what would you use benzodiazepine
what is antidote for benzodiazepine Flumazenil
what do benzodiazepines interact with alcohol, opioids, Cimetidine, MAOI's, kava, valerian, grapefruit juice
what is noted about barbituates habit forming, not used much today, narrow therapeutic index (easy to get toxic)
what are 4 categories of barbituatesq ultra short acting- anesthesia short acting- convulsive, sleep int. acting- sleep, convulsive long acting- sleep, epileptic/seizure prophylaxis
Name ultra short barbituates short int. long mephohexital, thiamylal, thiopental pentobarbital, secobarbital butabarbital phenobarbital, mephobarbital
what are common barbituates butabarbital(Butisol), pentobarbital(Nembutol), phenobarbital(Luminal), secobarbital(Seconal)
What is MOA of barbituates potentiate GABA, brain's natural calming agent, so slow's down actions in the brain
barbs adverse effects CNS-drowsy, vertigo, depression Resp- depression, apnea, spams, cough GI- N/V/D/constipation Other-agranulocytosis, hypotension, Stevens-Johnson syndrome(epidermis separate from dermis), reduce REM
Overdose for barbituates leads to coma and death (can be therapeutic for uncontrolled seizures) treat- maintain airway, fluids, activated charcoal
what are common muscle relaxants Dantrium- used in treatment of malignant hyperthermia crisis Flexeril, Lioresal, Skelaxin, Zanaflex
adverse effects of muscle relaxants euphoria, dizzy, fatigue, muscle weakness
when should you give hypnotics before bed 30-60 min for max effect to induce sleep Benzos have REM rebound, tired next day
Created by: palmerag



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