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AP Psychology Unit 4

Developmental Psychology

The fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo. zygote
The developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month. embryo
The developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth. fetus
Agents, such as chemicals and viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm. teratogens
A baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to open the mouth and search for the nipple. rooting reflex
The fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age. stranger anxiety
An emotional tie with another person. attachment
An optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development. critical period
The process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life. imprinting
A sense of one's identity and personal worth. self-concept
Parents following this parenting style impose rules and expect obedience. Authoritarian
Parents following this parenting style submit to their children's desires, make few demands, and use little punishment. Permissive
Parents following this parenting style are both demanding and responsive. They exert control not only by setting rules and enforcing them, but also by explaining the reasons and encouraging open discussion and allowing exceptions when making the rules. Authoritative
A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information. schema
Interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas. assimilation
Adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information. accommodation
All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, and remembering. cognition
In Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities. Includes the ideas of object permanence and stranger anxiety. Sensorimotor stage
The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived. Object permanence
In Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years old) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic. Preoperational stage
The principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects. Conservation
In Piaget's theory, the inability of the preoperational child to take another's point of view. Egocentrism
In Piaget's theoy, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events. Concrete operational stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts. Formal operational stage
The transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence. Adolescence
The body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible. Primary sex characteristics
Nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair. Secondary sex characteristics
The first menstrual period. Menarche
In Kohlberg's theory, the stage of moral development (less than 9 years old) in which children have not yet internalized moral rules. Focus is on rewards and punishment. Pre-conventional
In Kohlberg's theory, the stage of moral development (greater than 9 years old) in which the focus is on norms and social order. Conventional
In Kohlberg's theory, the stage of moral development (greater than adolescence) in which the focus is on rights and principles. Post-conventional
In Erikson's theory, the stage of psychological development (less than 1 year old) in which if needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust. Trust vs. Mistrust
In Erikson's theory, the stage of psychological development (from 1 to 2 years old) in which toddlers learn to exercise will and do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities. Autonomy vs. Shane
In Erikson's theory, the stage of psychological development (from 3 to 5 years old) in which preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent. Initiative vs. Guilt
In Erikson's theory, the stage of psychological development (from 6 years old to puberty) in which children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks, or they feel inferior. Competence/Industry vs. Inferiority
In Erikson's theory, the stage of psychological development (from the teens into the 20s) in which teenagers work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are. Identity vs. Role Confusion
In Erikson's theory, the stage of psychological development (from the 20s to the early 40s) in which young adults struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love, or they feel socially isolated. Intimacy vs. Isolation
In Erikson's theory, the stage of psychological development (from the 40s to the 60s) in which the middle-aged discover a sense of contributing to the world, usually through family and work, or they may feel a lack of purpose. Generativity vs. Stagnation
In Erikson's theory, the stage of psychological development (from the late 60s and up) in which the older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure when reflecting on his or her life. Integrity vs. Despair
The time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines. Menopause
A progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and, finally, physical functioning. Alzheimer's disease
A study in which people of different ages are compared with one another. Cross-sectional study
Research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period. longitudinal study
One's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age. Crystallized intelligence
One's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood. fluid intelligence
Created by: bsmithabc
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