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Mastoid & Ear

Mastoid, Outer, Middle & Inner Ear

What are the 3 aspects of the Temporal bone? Which aspect of the Temporal bone is considered the densest? Squamous portion, Mastoid portion & Petrous portion. The Petrous portion is the densest.
Which structure makes up the cartilaginous, external ear? The Auricle or Pinna
How long is the average External Acoustic Meatus (EAM)? 2.5 cm (1")
Which small membrane marks the beginning of the middle ear? Tympanic membrane (eardrum)
What is the collective term for the small bones of the inner ear? Auditory Ossicles
Which structure allows for communication between the nasopharynx & middle ear? What is the major function of this structure? Eustachian tube (auditory tube. To equalize atmospheric pressure within the middle ear.
What are the 3 auditory ossicles? Malleus (hammer), Incus (anvil), Stapes (stirrups)
What is the name of the thin plate of bone that separates the mastoid air cells from the brain? Tegman Tympani
Which one of the auditory ossicles pick up sound vibrations from the tympanic membrane? Malleus (hammer)
Which structure serves as an opening between the mastoid portion of the temporal bone & the middle ear? Aditus
Which one of the auditory ossicles is considered to be the smallest? Stapes (stirrups)
Which one of the auditory ossicles resembles a pre-molar tooth? Incus (anvil)
What is the name of the small membrane that connects the middle to the inner ear? What is it located between? Oval Window (Vestibular window). Between the Stapes & Vestibule (central portion of bony labyrinth.
Which two sensory functions occur within the inner ear? Hearing & equilibrium
What is the name of the small membrane that will move outward to transmit impulses to the auditory nerve, thus creating the sense of hearing? Where is structure. Round window (Cochlear window). At the base of the cochlea.
Is the cochlea a closed system relating to the sense of hearing? Why? Yes. Because of its connection to the stapes through the oval window.
How will the doctor diagnose a cholesteatoma, or neuroma? If the height of the Internal Auditory Canal (IAC) isn't consistent. A neuroma will erode the bone in the IAC.
What are the 3 semi circular canals? What portion of the bony labyrinth do they come off? What senses do the semi circular canals relate to? The posterior semi circular canal, lateral semi circular canal & superior semi circular canal. Off the Vestibule. To a sense of direction or equilibrium (balance).
What are the 3 parts of the Osseous (bony) labyrinth? The cochlea, vestibule & Semi circular canals.
What are the 2 main parts that the internal ear is divided into? Osseous (bony labyrinth) & Membranous labyrinth.
Where is the Membranous labyrinth located? What is it lined with? Where does the fluid come from? Inside the osseous labyrinth (in the cochlea). With fluid & membranous lining that transmit sound. from the endolymph duct.
What passes through the Internal Acoustic Meatus (IAM)? Auditory nerve & blood vessels.
Which of the middle ear structures is most lateral? The Malleus (hammer).
What is the opening between the Epitympanic recess & the Mastoid portion of the temporal bone? The aditus.
Which auditory ossicle attaches to the oval window? Stapes (stirrups)
What is a benign, cyst-like mass of the middle ear? Cholesteatoma
What are the 3 main parts of the middle ear? Tympanic membrane (eardrum), Auditory ossicles & the Tympanic cavity.
What are the 2 parts of the tympanic cavity divided into? Where are they. Tympanic cavity proper is inferior & epitympanic recess (attic) is superior. They are located in the middle ear.
Where is the Drum Crest or Spur located? Attached to the tympanic membrane that separates the external acoustic meatus from epitympanic recess (attic)
For Stenver's view, what will semi circular canals appear as? Which 3 points should be on the IR? How is patient's head rotated? How much & which direction is CR angled? Where is CR centered? How does the affected petrous ridge position relate to the IR? As a star. The forehead, nose & cheek. IOML perpendicular to front of IR, skull rotated 45 degrees from lateral. CR angled 12 degrees cephalic. Along the IOML & on the anterior aspect of the sideburns. The affected petrous ridge will be parallel to IR.
What is the Schuller method for the demonstrating Mastoids? Patient skull positioned in a true lateral (affected side on IR) with CR angled 25 degrees caudad centered 1" posterior to the EAM.
What is the Law method for demonstrating the Mastoids? What does it do to the ossicles & mastoid air cells? Patients skull rotated 15 degrees from lateral nose down, with the CR centered 1" posterior to EAM on side down. It elongates the ossicles & mastoid air cells.
Which projection puts the Mastoid tip (process) in profile? Stenver's projection.
What is the Owen method? Head is rotated 30 degrees (nose up) from lateral & a 30 degree caudad CR angle exiting at the Mastoid side down.
What is the Meyer method? What does it demonstrate? head rotated 45 degrees with a 45 degree CR angle. Demonstrates the chain of connection between the ossicles.
Which projection will demonstrate petrous ridges at to the mid-orbital level? How much CR angle is used? Modified PA caldwell with a 10 degree caudad angle to OML.
What is the large chamber within the mastoid portion that connects to the aditus? The antrum
What is an Arcelin method for the petromastoid region? A reverse Stenver's. Patient's head rotated 45 degrees, CR 12 degrees caudad centered 1" anterior & superior to TEA on side up
Created by: jamestkelley