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AP Psych Unit 6

Vocab from Unit 6 of Myers' Psychology for AP textbook

A relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experiences Learning
An organism's decreasing response to a stimulus with with repeated exposure to it Habituation
Learning that certain events occur together. the events may be two stimuli or a response and its consequences Associative Learning
A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events Classical Conditioning
The view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without references to the mental processes Behaviorism
The unlearned, naturally occuring response to the unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned Response (UR)
A stimulus that inconditionally- naturally and automatically- triggers a reaponse. Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
The learned response to a previously neutral(but now conditioned)stimulus Conditioned Response (CR)
An originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus comes to trigger a conditioned response Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for similar stimuli to the conditioned stimulus to elict similar responses Generalization
in classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response Acquisition
a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus High-Order Conditioning
the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when a unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs in operant condition when a response is no longer reinforced Extinction
the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response Spontaneous Recovery
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus Discrimination
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events Learned Helplessness
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus Respondent Behavior
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforce or diminished followed by a punisher Operant Conditioning
behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences Operant Behavior
Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by faborable consequences become more like, that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely Law of Effect
in operant conditioning research, a chamber (also known as a Skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain food or water reinforce; attached devices record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking Operant Chamber
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior Shaping
in operant conditioning, a stimulus that elicits a response after association with reinforcement (in contrast to related stimuli not associated with reinforcement) Discriminative Stimulus
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows Reinforce
increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforce in any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response Positive Reinforcement
increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforce is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response (negative reinforcement is not punishment) Negative Reinforcement
an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need Primary Reinforcer
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforce; also known as a secondary reinforce Conditioned Reinforcer
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs Continuous Reinforcement
reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement Partial Reinforcement
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses Fixed-Ratio Schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses Variable-Ratio Schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed Fixed-Interval Schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals Variable-Interval Schedule
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows Punishment
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment. Cognitive Map
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it Latent Learning
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem Insight
a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake Intrinsic Motivation
a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment Extrinsic Motivation
learning by observing others (also social learning) Observational Learning
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior Modeling
frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's actions may enable imitation and empath Mirror Neurons
positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior Prosocial Behavior
Created by: chiefrunner