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PSYC King Chapter 5

Sensation and Perception

Sensation The process of receiving stimulus energy from the environment
Transduction The process of transforming physical energy into electrochemical energy.
Perception The brain's process of organizing and interpreting sensory information to give it meaning
Bottom-Up Processing Processing that begins with sensory receptors registering environmental information and sending it to the brain for analysis and interpretation
Top-Down Processing Processing of perceptual information that starts out with cognitive processing at the higher levels of the brain
Sensory Receptors specialized cells that detect stimulus information and transmit it to sensory (afferent) nerves and the brain
Psychophyics The field that studies links between the psychical properties of stimuli and a person's experience of them
Absolute Threshold The minimum amount of stimulus energy that a person can detect
Noise Irrelevant and completing stimuli
Subliminal Perception The detection of information below the level of conscious awareness
Difference Threshold The smallest difference in stimulation required to discriminate one stimulus from another 50% of the time; aka JND
Weber's Law The principle that two stimulus must differ by a constant minimum percentage to be perceived as different
Signal Detection Theory the theory about perception that focuses on decision making about stimuli in the presence of uncertainty; detection depends on a variety of factors besides the physical intensity of the stimulus and the sensory abilities of the observer
Selective attention Focusing on a specific aspect of experience while ignoring others
Perceptual Set A predisposition to perceive something in a particular way
Sensory Adaptation A change in the responsiveness of the sensory system based on the average level of surrounding stimulation
Retina The light sensitive surface in the back of the eye that records what we see and converts it to neural impulses for processing in the brain
Rods The receptors in the retina that are sensitive to light but are not very useful for color vision
Cones The receptors in the retina that process information about color
Feature Detectors Neurons in the brains visual system that respond to particular features of a stimulus
Parallel Processing The simultaneous distribution of information across different neural pathways
Binding The bringing together and integration of what is processed through different pathways or cells
Trichromatic Theory Theory stating that color perception is produced by three types of receptors that are particularly sensitive to different, but overlapping, ranges of wavelengths
Opponent-Process Theory Theory stating that cells in the visual system respond to red-green ans blue-yellow colors; a given cell might be excited by red and inhibited by green and vice versa
Figure-Ground Relationship Principle by which individuals organize the perceptual field into stimuli that stand out (figure) and those that are left over (ground)
Gestalt Psychology School of psychology emphasizing that people naturally organize their perceptions according to certain patterns
Depth Perception The ability to perceive objects in 3D
Binocular Cues Depth cues that are based on the combination of the imagines on the left and right eye and on the way the two eye work together
Monocular Cues Depth cues that are available from the imagine in either eye
Apparent Movement The perception that stationary object is moving
Perceptual Constancy Recognition that objects are constant and unchanging even though sensory input about them is changing
Visual Illusion A discrepancy between reality and the perceptual representation of it.
Outer Ear Includes the pinna and external canal
Middle Ear Includes the eardrum, hammer and anvil and stirrup
Inner Ear Includes the oval window, cochlea, and basilar membrane
Place Theory The theory of hearing that states that each frequency produces vibrations at a particular spot on the basilar membrane
Frequency Theory Theory stating that perception of a sound's frequency depends on how often the auditory nerve fire
Volley Principle Modification of frequency theory stating that a cluster of cells can fire neural impulses in rapid succession, producing a volley of impulses.
Auditory Never Nerves that carries neural impulses to the brain's auditory areas
Thermoreceptor Sensory receptors, located under the skin, that respond to changes in temperature at or near the skin and provide input to keep the body's temperature at 98.6
Pain The sensation that warns us that damage to our bodies is occurring
Gate-Control Theory of Pain Theory stating that the spinal column contains a neural gate that can be opened (allowing the perception of pain) or closed (blocking it)
Papillae Bumps on the tongue that contain taste buds
Olfactory A sheet of receptor cells for smell that lines the roof of the nasal cavity
Kinesthetic Senses Senses that provide information about movement, posture, and orientation
Vestibular Sense Sense that provides information about balance and movement
Semicircular Canals Structure in the inner ear containing the sensory receptors that detect head motion
Created by: wee_vee