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Child Intelligence

Ch. 8 in Child Development Book by L.Berk

QuestionAnswer
Psychometric approach an approach to cognitive development that focuses on the construction of tests to asses mental abilities
Factor Analysis complicated correlational procedure which identifies sets of test items that cluster together. distinct clusters are called factors.
Spearman's General intelligence aka "G" . a common underlying intelligence that represents abstract reasoning capacity and that influences performance on all types of test items.
Specific Intelligence a mental ability that is unique to a test item as proposed by Spearman.
Crystallized intelligence refers to skills that depend on accumulated knowledge and experience, good judgement, and mastery of social customs.
Fluid Intelligence depends more heavily on basic info processing skills. the ability to detect relationships among stimuli, the speed w/ which the individual can analyze info. less influenced by culture.
The stratum theory of intelligence "G" is at the top. Broad Abilities (basic biological components of intelligence). Lastly, narrow abilities (specific behaviors though which ppl display the second tier factors.
Componential analyses looking for relationships between aspects(components) of info procession and children's intelligence test performance. IE correlation between working memory capacity and mental test scores.
Triarchic theory of Successful Intelligence (Proposed by Sternberg) 1.Analytical intelligence(info processing skills) 2. Creative Intelligence 3. Practical Intelligence (application of intellectual skills in everyday situations)
Gardener's Theory of Multiple Intelligence (definition) defines intelligence in terms of processing operations that permit individuals to solve problems,create products, and discover new knowledge in a wide range of culturally valued activities
List Gardener's Multiple Intelligences Linguistic, Musical,Spatial, Logio-Mathematical, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, Naturalist, Bodily-Kinestetic.
Emotional Intelligence set of emotional abilities that enable individuals to process and adapt to emotional info.
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales Measures general intelligence and five intellectual factors: fluid reasoning, quantitative reasoning, knowledge, visual-spatial, working memory.
Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children a measure of general intelligence and four broad intellectual factors; verbal reasoning, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speeds.
aptitude test assess an individual's potential to learn a specialized activity.
achievement test aim to assess not potential to learn but actual knowledge and skill attainment.
practical intelligence mental abilities apparent in the real world but not in testing situations.
Ethnic and SES Variations in IQ 1. years of education 2. prestige of one's job. 3. income which measures SES
Ethnic and SES Variations in IQ EXTRA INFO researchers compared the IQ scores of SES and ethnic groups because certain ethnicities (A.American and His. American) are represented at lowers SES levels while Caucasian and Asian Americans are represented at middle/upper levels.
Jensen's viewpt on Ethnic and SES Variations in IQ Black-white ses diff in IQ are due to conceptual abilities. They are similar in associative intelligence(rote memory ie arithmetic facts). Blacks excell in crystallized intelligence so IQ differences are not b/c culturally biased test.whites=more endowed
Heriability of Intelligence The greater the genetic similarity between family members, the more they resemble one another in IQ
Flynn Affect an increase in IQ from one generation to the next.
Stereotype threat the fear of being judged on the basis of a negative stereotype ca trigger anxiety tat interferes with performance.
Dynamic Assessment the adult introduces purposeful teaching into the testing situation to find out what the child can attain wit social support. (like Vygotsky's zone of proximal development)
Shared Enviromental Influences pervade general atmospher of the home and therefore similarily affect siblings living together
NonShared Enviromental Influences make siblings different from one another
Divergent thinking the generation of multiple and unusual possibilities when faced with a task and problem.
Convergent thinking involves arivinf at a single correct answer and is emphasized on intelligence test.
Created by: rmc08d