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Chem 115 Exam 3

Oil is predominantly made of ____ molecules organic
The simplest types of organic molecules are hydrocarbons
What is an isomer? molecule with same molecular formula but different structures and therefore different physical properties
What is the shape of hydrocarbons? Nearly tetrahedral; bond angles close to 109.5; NOT FLAT
What is catenation? the ability to bond to itself
What three factors is the chemical diversity of organic molecules a result of? Heteroatoms, electron density and reactivity, and functional groups*
Shows only bonds between carbons; carbons are at vertices carbon skeleton formula
Alkanes Hydrocarbons with single bonds
Alkenes Hydrocarbons with double bonds
Alkynes Hydrocarbons with triple bonds
Names of organic molecules: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 meth, eth, prop, but, pent, hex
What is a saturated hydrocarbon Each carbon bonded to a max number of other atoms
Contains carbon atom bonded to four different groups Chiral
What is an unsaturated hydrocarbon carbon bonded to less than four max atoms each
What's the difference between cis and trans Cis = same side; trans = opposite sides of the bond
What are very large organic molecules polymers
Three kinds of cyclic hydrocarbons cycloalkane; cycloalkene; cyclic alkyne
A very special cyclic alkene Benzene (two resonance structures... but neither is correct because actual is a hybrid
What is a constitutional isomer same chemical formula but different arrangement
What properties are different between isomers? density, boiling point, melting point, etc.
What is a combustion reaction Add O2, produce CO2 and H2O
What is oxidation conversion of carbons in hydrocarbons to CO2; creating bonds to oxygen
What is an alcohol organic molecule with a C bonded to OH
Double bonded O between two R groups Ketone
Double bonded O at the end of a chain Aldehyde
Carboxylic acid double bonded O and OH group
NH2 at the end of a carbon chain amine
N and double bonded O amide (peptide)
haloalkane Carbon bonded to a halogen (CH3F)(C-X)
O=C-O-C-R ester
C triple bonded to N nitrile
What provided important components for society including fuel and raw materials for production? Oil
Organic molecules have _________ shapes 3-D
Relative ability of bonded atom to attract shared e- Electronegativity
Trend of EN increase right; decrease down
Polar covalent bond atoms with different EN bond
Nonpolar covalent bond atoms with equal shared EN
What is the standard technique for figuring out functional groups in organic molecules Infrared spectroscopy
White light is The mixture of all colors of light
IR radiation is detected as _____; UV radiation is detected as _____ heat; sunburn
Absorption depends on _____ Concentration
A=elc... what law is this Beer-Lambert
When do molecules absorb IR uneven distribution of charge in molecule (polar) or upon vibration (unequal charge distribution)
c= frequency*wavelength
Pairs with higher bond energies will generally vibrate at a _____ frequency and have _____ wavelength IR absorption higher; shorter
Bond stretch types symmetric (out); asymmetric(every other); bend (up and down)
what to IR absorption frequencies depend on mass of bonded atoms and strength of interaction between them
energy= h * frequency
What happens when light interacts with matter bonds break; vibration; rotation
Name four greenhouse gases CO2, N2O, H2O, and CFCs
What is the purpose of the calibration plot in spectrophotometric analysis? To determine molar absorption allowing you to calculate concentration and absorbency between values.
molarity moles/liters
molality moles/kg
M1V1= M2V2
Electronegativty goes towards what element? Flourine
No EN difference nonpolar covalent
0-0.4 EN difference mostly covalent
0.4-1.7 polar covalent
1.7-3.3 mostly ionic
An inbalance of charge over the molecule molecular polarity
ion-dipole force ion + polar molecule (dipole)
dipole-dipole force polar + polar
Hydrogen bond H atom boned to F, N, or O
induced dipole-dipole have to have two difference substances
ion induced dipole ion + nonpolar
force in all bonds dispersion/ London
What is miscible soluble in each other in any proportion
mixtures of elements that have metallic character alloy
Mass percent (mass solute)/(mass solute + mass solvent)
mole fraction (x) (moles solute)/ (moles solute + moles solvent)
mole percent mole fraction X 100
intermolecular force strength in order of strongest to weakest ion-dipole; h bond; dipole-dipole; ion-induced; dipole-induced; dispersion
do lone pairs lead to a polar or nonpolar molecule polar
Is cis or trans more polar cis
What is the driving force that causes things to dissolve and potential for disorder entropy
What intermolecular forces are present in water? h-bonding, dipole-dipole, and dispersion
like dissolves like like dissolves like
A beaker contains 100 mL of salt water. If 100 mL of distilled water is added to the beaker, the number of moles of NaCl... doesn't change!!!
What does a colloid do keeps things dissolved into one another
Which is polar and nonpolar in a colloids head/tail? polar head; nonpolar tail
Which changes with temperature, molarity or molality? molarity
How do you determine dilution factor M1V1=M2V2
higher boiling point = _____ bond stronger
What are the four main colligative properties boiling point, freezing point, vapor pressure, and osmotic pressure
what are colligative properties caused by physical changes caused by difference between solute and pure solvent
ions in solution; conducts electric current electrolytes
no ions in solution; don't conduct electric current nonelectrolytes
What effects colligative properties? Number of solute particles; NOT what the solute is, just #
what is vapor pressure the equilibrium pressure of a vapor above its liquid
How to calculate vapor pressure (P) P of solvent = X of solvent * P original of solvent
Vapor pressures are proportional to and dependent on what Temperature
What is the most accurate colligative property Osmotic pressure
Formula for boiling point elevation Change in boiling temperature = bp elevation constant (k) * molality (m)... then add to original bp
Formula for freezing point depression Change in freezing temperature = fp depression constant (k) * molality (m)... then subtract from original bp
More moles = ____ freezing point lower
semipermeable membrane solvent can go through but solute can't
causes solvent to move and drives concentration change concentration gradient
osmosis passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane separating two solutions of different concentration
osmotic pressure ______ with number of solute particles increases
How to calculate osmotic pressure =(Molarity)RT... has to be in L, Atm, n, and K
difference between saturated and unsaturated saturated: solid at room temp. ; unsaturated: liquid at room temp.
The most abundant class of organic compounds found in living organisms carbohydrates/polysaccharides
Cellular membranes are made of a phospholipid bilayer
Cellular membranes have a _____ head and a _____ tail polar/ionic head ; nonpolar tail
Another word for polar and nonpolar polar=hydrophyllic; nonpolar=hydrophobic
Three parts to an amino acid R group, amine, carboxylic acid
Amino acids can have what three different kinds of side chains polar; nonpolar; ionic
Amino acids link together through a peptide bond
acid sequence determines _____ and _____ determines _____ shape; shape; function
Primary structure of proteins sequence of amino acids
Secondary structure of proteins spatial arrangement of the polypeptide into shapes
Which way to R groups face on amino acids Stick outward and away
Tertiary structure of proteins overall 3-D shape of a polypeptide chain
If a protein is in an aqueous environment, nonpolar pieces will face _____ the middle
What help to determine tertiary structure in proteins intermolecular forces
What is a fatty acid lipid
Quaternary structure of proteins two or more polypeptide chains
Fibrous proteins are NOT soluble in water
Proteins that are soluble in water are globular
3-D structure determines _____ Function
Proteins are _______ of amino acids polymers
Forces in a polypeptide chain colvalent peptide bonds H-bonds between C=O of one and N-H of another Polar and ionic side chains with water through ion-dipole and H-bonds -SH ends of 2 cysteine side chains, s-s bond/ disulfide bridge
Cysteine chains have sulfur
oppositly charged amine/carboxyl group ends form _________ salt link/ion pair (creates bend)
What type of interaction is primarily responsible for the secondary structures of proteins Hydrogen Bonds!
Created by: jkmccord11



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