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Psychology.Chapter.9

Learning

QuestionAnswer
A relatively permanent change in behavior (or behavioral potential) due to experience Learning
An approach to psychology that emphasizes the study of observable behavior and the role of the environment as a determinant of behavior Behaviorism
A basic kind of learning that involves associations between environmental stimuli and the organism's response Conditioning
The process by which a previously neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to elicit a response through association with a stimulus that already elicits a similar response Classical Conditioning
The classical conditioning term for a stimulus that elicits a reflexive response in the absence of learning Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
The classical conditioning term for a reflexive response elicited by a stimulus in the absence of learning Unconditioned Response (UR)
The classical conditioning term for an initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response after being associated with an unconditioned stimulus Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
Thee classical conditioning term for a response that is elicited by a conditioned stimulus; it occurs after the conditioned stimulus is associated with an unconditioned stimulus Conditioned Response (CR)
The weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response; in classical conditioning, it occurs when the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus Extinction
The reappearance of a learned response after its apparent extinction Spontaneous Recovery
In classical conditioning, a procedure in which a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus through association with an already established conditioned stimulus Higher-Order Conditioning
After conditioning, the tendency to respond to a stimulus that resembles one involved in the original conditioning; in classical conditioning, it occurs when a stimulus that resembles the CS elicits the CR Stimulus Generalization
The tendency to respond differently to two or more similar stimuli; in classical conditioning, it occurs when a stimulus similar to the CS fails to evoke the CR Stimulus Discrimination
"Little Albert" is an example of... Learning to Fear
In classical conditioning, the process of pairing a conditioned stimulus with a stimulus that elicits a response that is incompatible with an unwanted conditioned response Counterconditioning
The process by which a response becomes more likely to occur or less so, depending on its consequences Operant Conditioning
A little girl throwing a tantrum in order to get attention from her father is an example of... Operant Conditioning
The process by which a stimulus or event strengthens or increases the probability of the response that it follows Reinforcement
The process by which a stimulus or event weakens or reduces the probability of the response it follows Punishment
A stimulus that is inherently reinforcing, typically satisfying; an example is food Primary Reinforcer
A stimulus that is inherently punishing; an example is electric shock Primary Punisher
A stimulus that has acquired reinforcing properties through association with other reinforcers; money Secondary Reiniforcer
A stimulus that has acquired punishing properties through association with other punishers; bad grades Secondary Punisher
A reinforcement procedure in which a response is followed by the presentation of, or increase in intensity of, a reinforcing stimulus; as a result, the response becomes stronger or more likely to occur Positive Reinforcement
A reinforcement procedure in which a response is followed by the removal, delay, or decrease in intensity of an unpleasant stimulus; as a result, the response becomes stronger or more likely to occur Negative Reinforcement
When an unpleasant consequence follows a response, making the response less likely to recur. Positive Punishment
When an pleasant consequence is removed following a response, making the response less likely to recur. Negative Punishment
The weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response; in operant conditioning, it occur when a response is no longer followed by a reinforcer Extinction
In operant conditioning, the tendency for a response that has been reinforced (or punished) in the presence of one stimulus to occur (or be suppressed) in the presence of other similar stimuli Stimulus Generalization
In operant conditioning, the tendency of a response to occur in the presence of one stimulus but not in the presence of other, similar stimuli that differ from it on some dimension Stimulus Discrimination
A stimulus that signals when a particular response is likely to be followed by a certain type of consequence Discriminative Stimulus
A reinforcement schedule in which a particular response is always reinforced Continuous Reinforcement
a reinforcement schedule in which a particular response is sometimes but not always reinforced Intermittent (Partial) Schedule of Reinforcement
An operant conditioning procedure in which successive approximations of a desired response are reinforced Shaping
In the procedure of shaping, behaviors that are ordered in terms of increasing similarity or closeness to the desired response Successive Approximations
The application of conditioning techniques to teach new responses or to reduce or eliminate problematic behavior Behavior Modification
Reinforcers that are not inherently related to the activity being reinforced, such as money, prizes, and praise Extrinsic Reinforcers
Reinforcers that are inherently related to the activity being reinforced, such as enjoyment of the task and the satisfaction of accomplishment Intrinsic Reinforcers
A form of learning that is not immediately expressed in an overt response; it occurs without obvious reinforcement Latent Learning
Theories that emphasize how behavior is learned and maintained though observation and imitation of others, positive consequences, and cognitive processes such as plans, expectations, and beliefs Social-Cognitive Theories
A process in which an individual learns new responses by observing the behavior of another (a model) rather than through experiences Observational Learning
Created by: elyk01