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psych 101 exam2

QuestionAnswer
Accessory structures structures, such as the lens of the eye, that modify a stimulus
Transduction the process of converting incoming energy into neural activity
Neural receptors specialized cells that detect certain forms of energy and transduce them into nerve cell activity.
Psychophysics an area of research focusing on the relationship between the physical characteristics of environmental stimuli and the psychological experiences those stimuli produce
Absolute threshold the minimum amount of stimulus energy that can be detected 50 percent of the time
Just noticeable difference the smallest detectable difference in stimulus energy
Figure ground discrimination the ability to organize a visual scene so that it contains meaningful figures set against a less relevant ground
Perceptual organization that task of determining what edges and other stimuli go together to form an object
Depth perception the ability to perceive distance
Interposition a depth cue whereby closer objects block one’s view of things farther away
Linear perspective a depth cue whereby objects closer to the point at which two lines appear to converge are perceived as being at a greater distance
Motion parallex a depth cue whereby a difference in the apparent rate of movement of different objects provides information about the relative distance of those objects
Ocular accommodation the ability of the lens to change its shape and bend light rays so that objects are in focus
Eye convergence a depth cue involving the rotation of the eyes to project the image of an object on each retina
Retinal dispari a depth cue based on the difference between two retinal images of the world
Looming a motion cue involving a rapid expansion in the size of an image so that it fills the retina
Perceptual constancy the perception of objects as constant in size, shape, color, and other propertoes despite changes in their retinal image
Top-down processing aspects of recognition that are guided by higher-level cognitive processes and psychological factors such as expectations
Bottom-up processing aspects of recognition that depend first on the information about the stimulus that comes to the brain from the sensory receptors
Schema mental representations of categories of objects, events, and people
Parallel distributed processing (PDP) memory models in which new experiences change one’s overall knowledge base
Sound a repetitive fluctuation in the pressure of a medium, such as air
Amplitude the difference between the peak and the baseline of a waveform
Wave length the distance from one peak to the next in waveform
Tympanic membrane a membrane in the middle ear that generates vibrations that match the sound waves striking it
Cochlea a fluid-filled spiral structure in the ear in which auditory transduction occurs
Basilar membrane the floor of the fluid-filled duct that runs through the cochlea
Place theory a theory that hair cells at a particular place on the basilar membrane respond most to a particular frequency of sound
Cornea the curved, transparent, protective layer through which light rays enter the eye
Pupil an opening in the eye, just behind the cornea, through which light passes
Iris the colorful part of the eye, which constricts or relaxes to adjust the amount of light entering the eye
Lens the part of the eye behind the pupil that bends light rays, focusing them on the retina
Retina the surface at the back of the eye onto which the lens focuses light rays
Acoustic nerve the bundle of axons that carries stimuli from the hair cells of the cochlea to the brain
Sensory adaptation the process through which responsiveness to an unchanging stimulus decreases over time
Blind spot the light-insensitive point at which axons from all of the ganglion cells converge and exit the eyeball
Feature detectors cells in the cortex that that respond to a specific feature of an object
Fovea a region in the center of the retina where cones are highly concentrated
Optic nerve a bundle of fibers composed of axons of ganglion cells that carries visual information to the brain
Photoreceptors specialized cells in the retina that code light energy into nerve cell activity
Rods highly light-sensitive but color-insensitive photoreceptors in the retina that allow vision even in dim light
Cones photoreceptors in the retina that help us distinguish colors
Ganglion cells cells in the retina that generate action potentials
Optic chiasm part of the bottom surface of the brain where half of each optic nerve’s fibers across over to the opposite side of the brain
Visual cortex an area at the back of the brain to which neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus relay visual input
Auditory corte the area in the brain’s temporal lobe that is first to receive information about sounds from the thalamus
Encoding translating the physical properties of a stimulus into a pattern nerve cell activity that specifically identifies those properties.
Specific energy doctrine the discovery that stimulation of a particular sensory nerve provides codes for that sense, no matter how the stimulation takes place
Evolutionary psychology emphasizes the inherited, adaptive aspects of behavior and mental processes
Computational modeling an approach to perception that focuses on how computations by the nervous system translate over raw sensory stimulation into an experience of reality
Constructivist approach an approach to perception taken by those who argue that the perceptual system uses fragments of sensory information to construct an image of reality
Ecological approach an approach to perception maintaining that humans and other species are so well adapted to their natural environment that many aspects of the world are perceived without requiring higher-level analysis and inferences
Maturation natural growth or change that unfolds in a fixed sequence relatively independent of the environment
Zygote a new cell, formed from a father’s sperm and a mother’s ovum
Embryo the developing individual from the fourteenth day after fertilization until the end of the second month after conception
Fetus the developing individual from the third month after conception until birth
Teratogens harmful substances that can cause birth defects (i.e. diseases, drugs, alcohol, smoking)
Critical period an interval during which certain kinds of growth must occur if development is to proceed normally
Fetal alcohol syndrome a pattern of physical and mental defects found in babies born to women who abused alcohol during pregnancy
Temperament an individual’s basic disposition, which is evident from infancy
Socialization the process by which parents, teachers, and others teach children the skills and social norms necessary to be well-functioning members of society
Parenting styles the varying patterns of behavior that parents display as they interact with and discipline their children
Developmental psychology the psychological specialty that documents the course of social, emotional, moral, and intellectual development over the life span
Attachment a deep and enduring relationship with a caregiver or other person with whom a baby has shared many early experiences
Attachment behavior actions such as crying, smiling, vocalizing, and gesturing that help bring an infant into closer proximity to its caregiver
Attachment theory the idea that children form a closer attachment to their earliest caregivers and that this attachment pattern can affect aspects of the children’s later life
Self-regulation the ability to control one’s emotions and behaviors
Gender roles patterns of work, appearance, and behavior that society associates with being male or female
Gender schemas the generalizations children develop about what toys, activities, and occupations are “appropriate” for males and for females
Puberty the condition of being able, for the first time, to reproduce
Ethnic identity the part of a person’s identity associated with the racial, religious, or cultural group to which the person belongs
Moral development the growth of an individual’s understanding of the concepts of right and wrong
Pre-conventional reasoning moral reasoning that is not yet based on the conventions of rules that guide social interactions in society
Conventional reasoning moral reasoning that reflects the belief that morality consists of following rules and conventions
Post-conventional reasonin moral reasoning in which judgments are based on personal standards or universal principles of justice, equality, and respect for human life
Fixed ratio reinforcement a partial reinforcement schedule that provides reinforcement following a fixed number of responses
Fixed interval reinforcement a partial reinforcement schedule that provides reinforcement for the first response that occurs after some fixed time has passed since the last reward
Variable ratio reinforcement a partial reinforcement schedule that provides reinforcement after a varying number of responses
Variable interval reinforcement a partial reinforcement schedule that provides reinforcement for the first response after varying periods of time
Reflexes simple, involuntary, unlearned behaviors directed by the spinal cord without instructions from the brain
Learning the modification through experience of preexisting behavior and understanding
Neural networks neurons that operate together to perform complex functions
Object permanence the knowledge that objects exist even when they are not in view
Identity a deep understanding of who a person really is
Classical conditioning a procedure in which a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with a stimulus that elicits a reflex or other response until the neural stimulus alone comes to elicit a similar response
Conditioned response (CR) the response that the conditioned stimulus elicits
Conditioned stimulus (CS) the originally neutral stimulus that, through pairing with the unconditioned stimulus, comes to elicit a conditioned response
Unconditioned response (UCR) the automatic or unlearned reaction to a stimulus
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) a stimulus that elicits a response without conditioning
Extinction the gradual disappearance of operant behavior due to elimination of rewards for that behavior
Spontaneous recovery the reappearance of the conditioned response after extinction and without further pairings of the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli
Stimulus discrimination a process through which individuals learn to differentiate around similar stimuli and respond appropriately to each one
Stimulus generalization a phenomenon in which a conditioned response is elicited by stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus
Operant conditioning a process through which an organism learns to respond to the environment in a way that produces positive consequences and avoids negative ones
Law of effect consequences following a response determining the probability of a response in a situation (EL Thorndike-1898)
Operant a response that has some effect on the world
Reinforcement the process through which a particular response is made more likely to recur
Positive reinforcement a therapy method that uses rewards to strengthen desirable behaviors
Negative reinforcement when a response is strengthened by the removal of an unpleasant stimulus
Escape conditioning a type of learning in which an organism learns to make a particular response in order to terminate an aversive stimulus
Avoidance conditioning a type of learning in which an organism responds to a signal in a way that prevents exposure to an aversive stimulus
Punishment presentation of an aversive stimulus or the removal of a pleasant stimulus; a therapy method that weakens undesirable behavior by following it with an unpleasant stimulus
Shaping the process of reinforcing responses that come successively closer to the desired response
Helen case UCS: predator UCR: physiological response of fear Neutral stimuli: male genitals, semen, thought of sex CS: list above CR: vomiting in sexual situations. Woman was sexually molested when she was a child and vomits every time she has sex with her husband
Discriminative stimulus stimuli that signal whether reinforcement is available if a certain response is made
Systematic desensitization a behavioral treatment for anxiety in which clients visualize a graduated series of anxiety-provoking stimuli while remaining relaxed
Piaget’s stages of cognitive development sensori-motor, pre-operational, concrete operational, formal operational, assimilation and accommodation, and conservation
Sensori-motor a stage when the infant’s mental activity is confined to sensory perception and motor skills
Pre-operational stage when children begin to use symbols to represent things that are not present
Concrete operational stage when children’s thinking is no longer dominated by visual appearances
Formal operational stage usually begin around age 11 when abstract thinking first appears
Assimilation the process of trying out existing schemas on objects that fit those schemas
Accommodation the process of modifying schemas when familiar schemas do not work
Conservation the ability to recognize that the important properties of a substance remain constant despite changes in shade, length, or position
Sensation messages from the senses that make up the raw information that affects many kinds of behavior and mental processes
Perception the process through which people take raw sensations from the environment and interpret them, using knowledge, experience, and understanding of the world, so that the sensations become meaningful experiences
Difference threshold the smallest difference between stimuli that we can detect
Sensory system (sense) a system that translates information from outside the nervous system into neural activity
Weber’s Law a law stating that the smallest detectable difference in stimulus energy is a constant fraction of the intensity of the stimulus (K= ∆ I / I)
Gestalt theory A school in psychology the emphasizes the organized character of human experience and behavior
Texture gradient a gradual change in appearance of objects from coarse to fine - some objects appear closer because they are coarse and more distinct, but gradually become less and less distinct which makes the objects appear to get further and further away.
Visible spectrum the distribution of colors produced when light is dispersed by a prism
Illusions in perception the eyes begin to play tricks on a person after staring at the same image for a certain amount of time (i.e. staring at lines make the picture seem to move, staring at small circles make them look they are rotating, etc)
Wave frequency number of crests of a wave that pass a given point in a specified amount of time
Nature versus Nurture nature refers to what is inherited and learned while nurture refers to all environmental influences after conception (i.e. experience)
Cognitive development the construction of thought processes, including remembering, problem solving, and decision-making, from childhood through adolescence to adulthood
Bipolar cells cells that receive input from the photoreceptors and send it to the ganglion cells
Primary colors red, blue, and green
Bones in the middle ear the incus (anvil), malleus (hammer), and stapes (stirrup)
Incus an anvil shaped bone between the malleus and stapes
Malleus A small bone in the middle ear that transmits vibrations of the eardrum to the incus.
Stapes A small stirrup-shaped bone in the middle ear, transmitting vibrations from the incus to the inner ear.
Principle of closure applies when we tend to see complete figures even when part of the information is missing
Visual cliff involves an apparent, but not actual drop from one surface to another
Genetic mutation any event that changes genetic structure; any alteration in the inherited nucleic acid sequence of the genotype of an organism
Peer relationships these friendships help children establish their sense of self-worth; children can determine their own strengths and weaknesses in a supportive and accepting atmosphere
Rooting reflex consisting of head-turning and sucking movements elicited in a normal infant by gently stroking the side of the mouth or cheek
Babinski reflex extension upward of the toes when the sole of the foot is stroked firmly on the outer side from the heel to the front
Sucking reflex sucking movements of the lips of an infant elicited by touching the lips or the skin near the mouth.
Stages of motor development in infancy 2 months – able to lift head up on his own; 3 months – can roll over; 4 months – can sit propped up without falling over; 6 months – is able to sit up without support; 7 months – begins to stand while holding on to things for support; 9 months – can begin
Stranger anxiety is a form of distress that children experience when exposed to people unfamiliar to them
Egocentrism a stage in a child's development characterized by lack of awareness that other people's points of view differ from his own
Harry Harlow’s research on contact comfort separated newborn monkeys from their mothers and raised them with two artificial mothers; one was made of wire and the other was made of soft terrycloth; baby monkeys spent most of their time with the terrycloth version
Imprinting A rapid learning process by which a newborn or very young animal establishes a behavior pattern of recognition and attraction to another animal of its own kind or to a substitute or an object identified as the parent.
Authoritarian parenting children are expected to follow the strict rules established by the parents. Failure to follow such rules usually results in punishment. Authoritarian parents fail to explain the reasoning behind these rules.
Effects of authoritarian parenting generally lead to children who are obedient and proficient, but they rank lower in happiness, social competence and self-esteem
Authoritative parenting establishes rules and guidelines that their children are expected to follow. However, this parenting style is much more democratic. Authoritative parents are responsive to their children and willing to listen to questions. When children fail to meet the e
Effects of authoritative parenting tend to result in children who are happy, capable and successful
Permissive parenting have very few demands to make of their children. These parents rarely discipline their children because they have relatively low expectations of maturity and self-control
Effects of permissive parenting results in children who rank low in happiness and self-regulation. These children are more likely to experience problems with authority and tend to perform poorly in school.
Uninvolved parenting characterized by few demands, low responsiveness and little communication. While these parents fulfill the child's basic needs, they are generally detached from their child's life.
Effects of uninvolved parenting children tend to lack self-control, have low self-esteem and are less competent than their peers.
Basic trust stage one of Erickson’s psychosocial stages of development; when the parents present consistent, adequate, and nurturing care, the child develops basic trust and realizes that people are dependable and the world can be a safe place
Basic mistrust when the parents fail to provide these things, the child develops basic mistrust, resulting in depression, withdrawal, and maybe even paranoia
Acquisition refers to the period of time when the stimulus comes to evoke the conditioned response.
Learning by insight not determined only by conditioning; the sudden understanding of a solution to a problem
Primary reinforcement reinforcements that meet an organism’s basic needs, such as food and water
Negative reinforcement unpleasant stimuli, such as pain, that strengths a response if they are removed following that response
Continuous reinforcement a pattern in which a reinforcer is delivered every time a particular response occurs
Intermittent reinforcement when you receive some type of reward just often enough to keep you on the right track
Observational learning learning how to perform new behaviors by watching them
Modeling demonstrating desirable behaviors as a way of teaching them to clients
Julian B. Rotter argued that a person’s decision to engage in a behavior is determined by what the person expects to happen following the behavior and the value the person places on the outcome
TV viewing and aggression children who watch violent TV are more likely to act aggressively as adults
Vicarious learning is a type of learning that occurs as a function of observing, retaining and replicating novel behavior executed by others
Created by: mmcgill_7672