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Hip Anatomy

What are the intra-articular structures of the hip? Synovium, articular-cartilage, ligamentum teres, acetabular labrum
What area of the articular cartilage is thickest in the hip? Anterio-superiorly = primary weight bearing area
What bones make up the innominate bone of the acetabulum? ilium, ishium, & pubis
The acetabulum is covered by what type of cartilage? What specific part is not covered by this specific cartilage? Hyaline cartilage, fovea capitis
The fovea capitis contains what ligament? What artery supplies this area? Ligamentum teres, obturator artery
What is the wedge-shaped fibrocartilage and connective tissue ring that rims the periphery of the acetabulum? Acetabular labrum
To allow for extension, the labrum is thinner in what direction? anterior
Is the labrum thought to be vascular or avascular? avascular
What is the function of the acetabulum? 1. deepens the acetabulum 2. reduces contact stress or force per unit area by increasing contact area and distributing load 3. provide proprioceptive feedback and enhances joint stability (negative-intra-articular pressure)labrum "grasps" the femoral he
What bone is the strongest and longest? femur
What fraction of the femoral head articulates with acetabulum? 2/3
What plane does hip flexion/extension occur in? sagittal
Hip flexion ROM? 0 - 140
Hip extension ROM ? 0-45
Arthrokinematics of hip flexion? spin with posterior glide of femoral glide head on acetabulum
Arthrokinematics of hip extension? spin with anterior glide
What plane does hip abduction occur in? frontal plane
Hip abd ROM? 0-40
Arthrokinematics of hip abd? inferior glide
what plane does hip IR and ER occur in? transverse
Hip IR ROM? 0-40
Hip ER ROM? 0-45
Arthrokinematics of hip IR? posterior glide
Arthrokinematics of hip ER? anterior glide
Is the angle of inclination more or less in a newborn? More, 140-150 degrees
What is the angle of inclination in a normal adult male? 125 degrees
What is the angle of inclination in a normal adult female? 110-115
Definition of coxa valga? angle of inclination is greater than 125 degrees
Does coxa valga or coxa vara predispose you to hip OA? coxa valga
what promotes hip dislocation and lengthens the limb (coxa valga or vara)? coxa valga
Does the normal joint reaction force have a medial or lateral bias at the hip? medial bias
Coxa valga causes the hip to have a _______ bias at the hip? lateral
What are the 3 related postures you will see in someone with coxa valga 1. ipsilateral genu varus (knee) 2. longer ipsilateral leg 3. posterior pevlic rotation
What are the possible compensations of coxa valga? 1. ipsilateral pronation 2. contralateral supination 3. contralateral plantarflexion 4. ipsilateral recurvatum 5. ipsilateral anterior pelvic rotation
Definition of coxa vara? angle is less than 125 degrees
What increases stability, shortens the limb and causes a greater incidence of femoral neck fractures (coxa valga or vara)? Coxa vara
What are the 3 related postures of coxa vara? 1. ipsilateral genu valgus (knee) 2. shortened ipsilateral leg 3. anterior pelvic rotation
What are the possible compensations with coxa vara? 1. ipsilateral supination 2. contralateral pronation 3. ipsilateral plantarflexion 4. contralateral recurvatum (hyperextension of knee) 5. ipsilateral posterior pelvic rotation
what is the normal angle of torsion in the femoral shaft? 15 degrees of anteversion
Anteversion is an increase or decrease in the angle of torsion? increase (more than 15 degrees)
Anteversion or Retroversion is associated with a decrease in joint stability and an increased tendency for anterior dislocation of the femoral head? anteversion
Anteversion is characterized by excessive _________ rotation and loss of ______________ rotation? medial rotation, lateral rotation
What are the three related postures for femoral anteversion? 1. in-toeing 2. excess subtalar pronation 3. lateral patellar subluxations
what are the possible compensations for femoral anteversion? 1. excess external tibial torsion 2. ER of tibia 3. ipsilateral lumbar spine rotation
Retroversion involves an increase or decrease in anterior torsion? decrease
Anteversion or Retroversion promotes stability and is associated with lateral rotation of the femur? Retroversion
Retorversion or Anteversion: will see a medial tibia rotation as compensation? retroversion
What are the 2 related postures for retroversion? 1. out-toeing 2. excess subtalar supination
What are the possibile compensations of retroversion? 1. excess internal tibial torsion 2. IR of tibia 3. comtralateral lumbar spine rotation
What test is the gold standard for measuring anteversion and retroversion? CT scan
What law states: "Bone is deposited and reabsorbed in accordance with the stress placed upon it?" Wolff's Law
You would use an assistive device on the opposite or same side to create a longer moment arm to keep the pelvis level? opposite side
What is the purpose of the synovial membrane in the hip? lubrication
What is the capsular pattern of the hip? IR > flexion, abduction
The ligamentum teres arises from the __________ and inserts into the __________? acetabular notch, fovea capitis
What is the purpose of the ligamentum teres? protects the posterior branch of the obturator artery that supplies the head of the femur
The ligamentum teres is most tense with ? adduction & distraction
The pubofemoral ligament blends medially with the _____________ muscle and attaches into the _______________? pectineus muscle, trochanteric fossa
the pubofemoral ligament prevents excessive __________, __________, and ___________? Abduction, extension, lateral rotation
What ligament is also known as the Y ligament of Bigelow? iliofemoral ligament
what is the strongest ligament in the body? iliofemoral ligament
What ligament plays a significant role in upright posture? iliofemoral ligament
the iliofemoral ligament prevents excessive ____________, ___________ and ___________? extension, adduction& lateral rotation
what is the weakest ligament of the hip? ischiofemoral ligament
The ischiofemoral ligament arises from the ________ and attaches to the ___________? posterior acetabular rim, trochanteric fossa
The ischiofemoral ligament helps stabilize the hip in _________? extension
The ischiofemoral ligament resists __________, _________ and __________? abduction, medial rotation & extension
What muscles flex the hip? 1. iliopsoas 2. rectus femoris 3. sartorius
What muscles extend the hip? 1. gluteus maximus 2. posterior aspect of glut med 3. hamstrings
What muscles adduct the hip? 1. add brevis 2. add longus 3. add magnus 4. gracilis 5. pectineus
What muscles abduct the hip? 1. glut med 2. glut min 3. TFL
What muscles ER the hip? 1. PGOGOQ 2. sartorius
What muscles IR the hip? 1. add longus 2. add brevis 3. add magnus 4. anterior part of glut med 5. anterior part of glut min 6. pectineus 7. gracilis
Created by: jls35