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Psych: Chapter 5


Perception The process through which people take raw sensations from the environment and interpret them, using knowledge, experience, and understanding of the world, so that the sensations becomes meaningful experiences.
Computational Approach An approach to perception that focuses on how computations by the nervous system translate raw sensory stimulation into an experience of reality.
Constructivist Approach A view of perception taken by those who argue that the perceptual system uses fragments of sensory information to construct an image of reality.
Ecological Approach An approach to perception maintaining that humans and other species are so well adapted to their natural environment that many aspects of the world are perceived without requiring higher-level analysis and inferences.
Psychophysics An area of research focusing on the relationship between the physical characteristics of environmental stimuli and the psychological experiences those stimuli produce.
Absolute Threshold The minimum amount of stimulus energy that can be detected 50 percent of the time.
Subliminal Stimuli Stimuli that are too weak or brief to be perceived.
Supraliminal Stimuli Stimuli that are strong enough to be consistently perceived.
Sensitivity The ability to detect a stimulus.
Response Criterion The internal rule a person uses to decide whether or not to report a stimulus
Signal-Detection Theory A mathematical model of what determines a person's report that a near-threshold stimulus has or has not occurred.
Just-Noticeable Difference (JND) The smallest detectable difference in stimulus energy.
Weber's Law A law stating that the smallest detectable difference in stimulus energy is a constant fraction of the intensity of the stimulus.
Perceptual Organization The task of determining what edges and other stimuli go together to form an object.
Depth Perception The ability to perceive distance.
Interposition A depth cue whereby closer objects block one's view of things farther away.
Relative Size A depth cue whereby larger objects are perceived as closer than smaller ones.
Height in the Visual Field A depth cue whereby objects higher in the visual field are perceived as more distant.
Linear Perspective A depth cue whereby objects closer to the point at which two lines appear to converge are perceived as being at a greater distance.
Texture Gradient A graduated change in the texture, or grain, of the visual field, whereby objects with finer, less detailed textures are perceived as more distant.
Motion Parallax A depth cue whereby a difference in the apparent rate of movement of different objects provides information about the relative distance of those objects.
Accommodation The ability of the lens of the eye to change its shape and bend light rays so that objects are in focus
Convergence A depth cue involving the rotation of the eyes to project the image of an object on each retina.
Binocular Disparity A depth cue based on the difference between two retinal images of the world.
Looming A motion cue involving a rapid expansion in the size of an image so that it fills the retina.
Stroboscopic Motion An illusion in which lights or images flashed in rapid succession are perceived as moving
Perceptual Constancy The perception of objects as constant in size, shape, color, and other properties despite changes in their retinal image.
Top-Down Processing Aspects of recognition that are guided by higher-level cognitive processes and psychological factors such as expectations.
Bottom-Up Processing Aspects of recognition that depend first on the information about the stimulus that comes to the brain from the sensory receptors
Schemas Mental representations of what we know, and have come to expect, about the world.
Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) model An approach to understanding objects recognition in which various elements of the object are thought to be simultaneously analyzed by a number of widely distributed, but connected, neural units in the brain.
Attention The process of directing and focusing psychological resources to enhance perception, performance, and mental experience
Created by: letseathesky
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