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Sociology Ch 9 Vocab

Seeing Sociology Chapter 9 Vocab

sex based on the anatomical traits essential to reproduction
primary sex characteristics the anatomical traits essential to reproduction
intersexed classifies people with some mixture of male and female reproductive parts.
transgender refers to people whose primary sex characteristics do not match the gender they perceive themselves to be
secondary sex characteristics physical traits not essential to reproduction
gender the socially created and learned distinctions that specify the physical, behavioral, and emotional traits characteristic of males and females.
masculinity traits believed to be characteristic of males
femininity traits believed to be characteristic of females
gender ideals a standard against which real cases can be compared
life chances the probability that a person's life will turn out a certain way
gender polarization describes the process by which being male or female increases the probability that a person's life will be a certain way.
structural constraints the established and customary rules, politicies, and day to day practices that affect a persons life chances
gendered when there is an established pattern of segregating the sexes
gender gap the disparity in opportunities available for men and women
gender stratification the extent to which opportunities and resources are unequally distributed between men and women
patriarchy an arrangement in which men have systematic power over women in public and private life
glass ceiling a term used to describe a barrier that prevents women from rising past a certain level in an organization
glass escalator a term to applies to the invisible upward movement that puts men in positions of power, even within female dominated occupations.
gender roles the behavior and activities expected of someone who is male or female
agents of socialization the significant people, groups, and institutions that act to shape our gender identity.
sexuality encompasses all the ways people experience and express themselves as sexual beings
sexual orientation refers to "an enduring pattern of emotional or sexual attractions to men, women, or both sexes
biological sex the physiological, including genetic, characteristics associated with being male or female
gender role the cultural norms that guide people in enacting what is considered to be feminine and masculine behavior
gender identity the awareness of being a man or woman, of being neither, or something in between
transgender the label applied to those who geel that their inner sense of being a man or a woman does not match their anatomical sex
sexual scripts responses and behaviors that people learn to guide them in sexual activities and encounters
commodification occurs when economic value is assigned to things not previously thought of in economic terms
commodification of sexuality occurs when companies create products for people to buy so that they can express themselves as sexual beings
commercialization of sexual ideals the process of introducing products into the market using advertising campaigns that promise consumers they will achieve a sexual ideal if they use the product
sexism the belief that one sex is innately superior to another
misogyny hatred directed toward women
misandry hatred directed toward men
homophobia an irrational fear held by some heterosexuals that a same-sex person with make a sexual advance toward them
feminism a perspective that seeks to understand the position of women in society relative to men and advocates equal opportunity
female infanticide the targeted abortion of female fetuses because of a cultural preference for males
Created by: AlyRuth