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Chapter 4

Sensation and Perception

What is sensation? The stimulation of the somatic nervous system and the transmission of that information to the Central Nervous System.
What is Perception? the process of interpreting sensory stimulation.
What is absolute threshold? the weakest amount of a stimulus that can be detected.
What unit of measure is light measured in? nanometers
The wavelength of light affects...? its color and amplitude
What is the function of the cornea? It is the transparent outer layer of our eye that is responsible for about 2/3 of our ability to bring objects into focus.
What is the function of the pupil? It determines the amount of light that reaches the eyeball.
What is the function of the lens? It focuses light onto the retina.
What is the function of the retina? It is a mass of cells at the back of that eyeball and its function is to convert light into electrical impulses.
What is the function of the Macula? It is responsible for central vision and allows us to see minute detail. It is the most sensitive part of the retina and is essential to reading.
What are cones? allow us to see color
What are rods? help us to see in the dim light, black and white vision, and are responsible for our peripheral vision.
What is the function of Ganglion cells? They transmit electrical impulses from the retina to the occipital lobe.
What is the function of the optic nerve? Allows the transmission of electrical impulses from the retina to the occipital lobe. (composed of ganglion cells)
What is the function of Retinal Bipolar cells? they transmit signals from the cones and rods to the ganglion cells.
What is the function of the aqueous humor? It is the fluid that fills the space between the cornea and the iris. It nourishes the lens and the cornea.
What is the function of the vitreous humor? It is the fluid that gives our eyeball its shape - it is mostly water but in children it has the consistency of an egg white.
What is the sclera? the outer white part of the eye that is its protective film.
What is glaucoma? A build up of pressure in the aqueous humor that can lead to blindness. Is treated with either eyedrops or surgery.
What are cataracts? Disease of the lens.
What cause spots in your eye? Impurities in the vitreous humor?
What is an elongated sclera? It causes nearsightedness. Can be resurrected with glasses, contact lenses, or surgery.
What is a flattened sclera? It causes farsightedness. Can be resurrected with glasses, contact lenses, or surgery.
What unit of measure are sound waves measured in? Hertz(hz) It is based upon the number of times a sound wave passes a given point every second. (1 cycle = 1 HZ) Humans can detect between 20 to 20,000 HZ.
What unit of measurement is the intensity of a sound wave measured in? A decibel. Normal conversion is 60 decibels.
What decibel casues hearing loss? Continuous exposure to 90 decibels. 130 decibels produces pain.
What is the Pinna and what does it do? It helps to funnel sound waves into the ear canal.
What is the function of the ear canal? It channels sound waves to the ear drum. It also has glands that produce cerumen (ear wax) that helps to protect the ear from infection.
What is the function of the ear drum? As sound waves reach the ear drum, it vibrates. This vibration triggers the bones of the middle ear to move.
What are the functions of the hammer, anvil, and the stirrup? When the ear drum moves, it sets these bones into "motion," then they pass into the inner ear.
What is the function of the oval window? It is the gateway to the inner ear and a structure called the cochlea.
What is the cochlea? It is a bony circular structure that contains the basiliar membrane
What is the function of the basiliar membrane? It contains cilia that convert vibrations into electrical impulses that are sent to the auditory nerve. These cannot be replaced and cause loss of hearing.
What is the function of the auditory nerve? It carries electrical impulses to parts of the brain that are associated with hearing (the temporal lobe). They are then interpreted by the brain and given names which we call sounds.
What is the function of semi-circular canals? They are 3 canals filled with fluid that help us keep our balance no matter the position of our body.
Which lobe of the brain interprets touch? Parietal lobes.
Which cells in the nose "smell?" Olfactory cells that absorb air molecules. Specific molecules adhere to specific cells.
Which part of the brain interprets smell? The hindbrain.
Created by: cindysmile