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Ch. 6 psyc

Classical conditioning & learning

Learning A relatively permanent change in behavior, attitude, knowledge, and capability; Acquired through experience not illness, maturation, or injury
The Black Box Stimulus goes in and a response comes out; doesn't matter whats inside; Same principal for all animals so we can generalize; Stimulus-box-Response
Classical Conditioning Discovered on accident during a saliva experiment; A type of learning in which one organism learns to associate one stimulus with another
Dogs would salivate when: 1. They heard footsteps of the lab assistants 2. Heard the food dishes rattle 3. Saw the attendants who fed them 4. Saw the food
Stimulus Any event or object in the environment to which an organism responds
Reflex An involuntary response to a stimulus; Ex. Eye blink to a puff of air
Conditioned reflex A response elicited by and unconditioned stimulus with prior learning; Salivate at the sight of food
Unconditioned response Response that is elicited by an unconditioned stimulus without prior learning; Salivation, startle, contraction of pupil to light, eye blink response
Unconditioned stimulus Stimulus that elicits a specific unconditioned response without learning; Food, loud noise, light in eye, puff of air in eye
Conditioned stimulus Neutral stimulus that, after repeated with unconditioned stimulus, becomes associated with it and elicits a conditioned response
Conditioned response Learned response that comes to be elicited by a conditioned stimulus as a result of repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus
High-order conditioning Occurs when the conditioned stimulus are linked together to form a series of signals; ex. steps leading to a blood drawl at a clinic
Extinction Weakening and eventual disappearance of the conditioned response as a result of repeated presentation of the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus
Spontaneous recovery Reappearance of an extinguished response after exposure to the original conditioned stimulus following a rest period
Generalization Tendency to make a conditioned response to a stimulus that is similar to the conditioned stimulus
Discrimination Learned ability to distinguish between similar stimuli so that the conditioned response occurs only to the original conditioned stimulus but not to similar stimuli
John B. Watson and emotional conditioning 1919; Little Albert was conditioned by a loud noise to fear white rats and other white objects
Robert Rescorla Demonstrated that classical conditioning is not repeated pairing of the CS and the UCS; depends on whether the CS provides information that enables reliable prediction of the UCS; Pairings of tones and shocks
Tones and shocks: only the group where the tone reliably predicted the shock developed a conditioned fear response; when the tone provided no clue about the shock pairings did not lead to conditioning
Biological Predispositions Smell and taste are closely associated because the smell of a certain food is a signal of its taste and the sensation of eating it
Classical conditioning in every day life Fear responses, drug use, advertising, the immune system
Fear responses Dental visits; sound of the drill and suction, smell of the office, sight of the chair and light
Drug use The CS associated with drug use leads individuals to seek out those substances; counselors encourage recovering users to avoid those stimuli like people, places, and things
Advertising A neutral product is associated with people, objects, or situations customers like to elicit a positive response
The Immune system Chemotherapy treatments can result in conditioned taste aversion; providing a "scapegoat" target can help patients maintain a healthy diet
Pavlov's second signal system Related to the way we learn meanings to words; a signal of signals; Seeing an apple (first stimulus), naming the apple (second stimulus); More intense stimuli lead to more rapid conditioning
4 tenets of association theory 1. Temporal Contiguity 2. Intensity 3. Frequency 4. Similarity
Created by: Rootb