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MNGT Test 3

Chapters 9, 10, 11, 12

A patterned set of relationships between two or more people, they are the pathways through which communication and resources flow and how work actually gets done Social Network
A diagram of points and lines used to represent relations among network actors Sociogram
The individuals, groups, organizations, or supraorganizations that comprise the network actors
The connection between actors network tie
The degree to which an actor has the most unique links to other actors in the network Network centrality
The degree to which there are overlapping linkages among the actors in a network Network density
Mapping and measuring of relationships and flows among network actors. Social network analysis
Ties where a single link spans actors. Direct ties
Where connections exist between actors, but where the connection spans more than one link. Indirect ties
The informal structure of an organization as represented in ongoing patterns of interaction, either in general or with respect to a given issue. Communication network
Shows who goes to whom for advice on work;related matters. Information network
Indicates who goes to whom to engage in dialogue that helps people solve problems at work. problem-solving network
captures who is aware of whose knowledge and expertise knowledge network
shows who has access to whose knowledge and expertise access network
the principle that actors in a network are more likely to reciprocate favors principle of reciprocity
The principle that network exchange is more likely when you have access to unique resources Principle of exchange
The principle that network ties are more likely to form among similar, rather than dissimilar, actors principle of similarity
a tie that exists among actors who do not know one another well and engage in regular exchange strong tie
a tie that exists among actors who do not know one another well and engage in infrequent exchange weak ties
weak ties= strong bridge
Granovetter's value of weak ties you are more likely to get a job through weak ties than through strong ties
Managing the Innovation network 1. connect 2. set boundaries and engage 3. support and govern 4. manage and track
involves the identification of key people in the organization with an innovation mind-set connect
where the network’s goals and objectives are defined. It is important to link these factors to the larger strategy set boundaries and engage
the leadership structure for the network is decided on, along with any protocols for meeting, sharing ideas, and decision making support and govern
covers a spectrum of needs ranging from how network members will be recognized and rewarded for their contributions, the agreement about process-tracking criteria, and some guidelines on how new members join the networks and others leave manage and track
Ethical implications of social networks violation of privacy psychological harm harm to individual standing
Those who hold a position of authority and may utilize the power that comes from their position, as well as their personal power to influence others formal leaders
Those without a formal position of authority within the organization but demonstrate leadership by influencing those around them through personal forms of power informal leaders
defines the leader's role as serving the needs of others servant leadership
effective leaders who stay true to themselves authentic leadership
involve structuring the roles of subordinates, providing them with instructions and behaving in ways that will increase the performance of the group task-oriented leader behaviors
include showing concern for employee feelings and treating employees with respect relationship-oriented leader behaviors
When leaders make the decision alone without necessarily involving employees in the decision-making process authoritarian decision making
making choices among alternatives courses of action, including inaction democratic decision making
when leaders leave employees alone to make the decision. The leader provides minimum guidance and involvement in the decision. laissez-faire decision making
different people can be effective in different situations fiedler's contingency theory
leaders must use different leadership styles depending on their followers' developmental level. situational leadership
path-goal theory of leadership -directive leadership -supportive leadership -participative leadership -achievement-oriented leaders
Theory stating that a leader's main job is to motivate employees with the beliefs that 1. their effort will lead to high performance 2.their high performance will be rewarded, and 3. the rewards they will recieve are valuable to them path-goal theory
Those leaders who provide specific directions to their employees directive leaders
those leaders who provide emotional support to employees supportive leaders
those leaders who make sure that employees are involved in making important decisions participative leaders
those leaders who set goals for employees and encourage them to reach their goals achievement-oriented leaders
Employees demonstrate the right behaviors because the leader provides resources in exchange transactional leaders
Employees focus on company’s well being rather than individual pursuits transformational leaders
leaving employees alone but at the same time proactively predicting potential problems and preventing them from occuring active mngt by exception
leaving employees alone but then coming to the rescue if anything goes wrong passive mngt by exception
Punish and correct poor performance and reward good or expected performance contingent reward
when leaders show personal care and concern for the well-being of their followers individualized consideration
when leaders challange organizational norms and status quo and encourage employees to think creatively and work harder intellectual stimulation
when leaders come up with a vision that is inspiring to others inspirtational motivation
they display conviction, take difficult stands, represent important values, and are admired as role models idealized influence
making choices among alternative courses of action decision making
decisions that occur frequently enough that we develop an automated response to them programmed decsions
unique, nonroutine, and important decisions that require conscious thinking, information gathering, and careful consideration of alternatives unprogrammed decisions
automated responses used to make programmed decisions decision rules
a model that recognizes the limitations of decision-making processes. according to this model, individuals knowingly limit their options to a manageable set and choose the best alternative without conduction an exhaustive search for alternatives bounded rationality model
accepting the first alternative that meets minimum criteria satisficing
a process of generating ideas that follows a set of guidlines, which includes no criticism of ideas during the process, the idea that no suggestion is too crazy, and building on other ideas brainstorming
a variation of brainstorming where the group focuses on ideas that are impossible and then imagines what would need to happen to make them possible wildstorming
a set number of ideas a group must reach before they are done with brainstorming idea quotas
when individuals overestimate their ability to predict future events overconfidence bias
the opposite of overconfidence bias as it occurs when a person, looking at the past, judges that a mistake that was made should have been recognized as a mistake at the time hindsight bias
the tendancy for individuals to rely too heavily on a single piece of information anchoring
Rational decision making process 1. identify the problem 2. establish decision making criteria 3. weigh decision criteria 4. generate alternatives 4. evaluate the alternatives 5. choose the best alternative
assumptions of rational decision 1. assumes that people understand what the decision to be made is 2. assumes that people know all the valuable resource 3. assumes that people have no perceptional biases 4.assumes that people want to make optimal deicisons
creative decision making process 1. problem recognition 2. immersion 3. incubation 4. illumination 5. verification and application
3 model of creativity 1. expertise 2. creative-thinking skills 3. intrinsic task motivation
a technique designed to help with group decision making by ensuring that all members participate fully Nominal Group technique
a group process that uses written responses to a series of questionaires instead of physically bringing individuals together to make a decision delphi technique
decision-making rule where each memeber of the group is given a single votes is selected majority rule
a decision making rule that groups may use when they goal is to gain support for an idea of a plan action concensus
interactive computer-based systems that are able to combine communication and decision technologies to help groups make better decisions group decision suspport systems
diagrams where answers to yes or no questions lead decsiions makers to address additional questions until they reach the end of the tree decision trees
the distortion of withholding of information to manage a person's reactions filtering
the personal filtering of what we see and hear to suit our own needs selective perception
this occurs when the information processing demands on an individual's time to perform interations and internal calculations exceed the supply or capacity of time available for such processing information overload
happen when the sender or the reciever is upset, whether about the subject at hand or about some unrelated incident that may have hapened earlier emotional disconnects
the informal gossip network within a given organization grapevine
the meanings of words and the study of meaning in communications semantics
a specific set of acronyms or words unique to a specific group or profession jargon
can offend or stereotype others on the basis of their personal or group affiliation. biased language
3 main functions of communication 1. transmission of information 2. coordination of effort 3. sharing emotions and feelings
Why do individuals filter their communication with others? 1. past experience 2. knowledge, perception of the speaker 3. emotional state, involvement with the topic
components of active listening 1. listen for message content 2. listen for feelings 3. respond to feelings 4. note all cues 5. paraphrase and restate
Created by: kec0010
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