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Geography Def. 1


Glaciation Process in which glaciers form and spread
Loess Fine, rich, wild-borne soil left
Dike Large banks of earth and stone
Polders Low-lying area from which seawater has been drained to create new farmland
Fjords Long, narrow steep-sided inlets
Permafrost Soil that is permanently frozen below the surface
Timberline The elevation above which trees cannot grow
Mistral Strong North wind from the Alps
Siroccos Hot, dry winds from North Africa
Foehn Blows down from the mountains into valleys and plains
Avalanche Destructive masses of ice, snow, and rock sliding down mountainsides
Immigrant Person who comes to a country to take up permanent residence
Refugee Person who flees to another country for safety
Middle Ages A.D. 500-A.D. 1500; known as the period between modern and ancient times
Feudalism System in which monarchs or lords gave land to nobles in return for pledges of loyalty
Reformation Religious movement of the 1500s that lessened the power of the Roman Catholic Churches and introduced Protestantism to Europe
Enlightenment Movement to value reason and question tradition
Industrial Revolution Transformed manufacturing in Europe by replacing human labor with machines
Industrial Capitalism Economic system in which owners used profits to expand their companies
Communism Philosophy that called for economic equality and ownership resources by workers
Cold War Power struggle between the Soviet-Controlled Communist world and the non-communist world
European Union Organization whose goal is to unite Europe so that goods, services, and workers can move freely among member countries
Welfare States Nation in which the government assumes major responsibility for people's well-being in areas such as health and education
Romanticism Focused on emotions, stirring historical events, and the struggles of individuals
Guest Worker Foreigner who works on a temporary basis in a country other than ones in which they are citizens
Crusades A series of brutal religious wars
Reparations Payment for damages
Holocaust Mass killing of more than 6 million European Jews
Realism Focused on accurately depicting the details of everyday life
Impressionist Moved outdoors to capture immadiate experiences
City-State Separate communities
Renaissance Europe's period of artistic and intellectual achievement
Balkanization The division of a region into smaller regions that are often hostile to each other
Ethnic Cleansing The expelling from a country or killing of rival ethnic groups
Heavy Industry The manufacturing of machinery and industrial equipment
Light Industry Manufacturing aimed at making consumer goods such as textiles or food processing rather than heavy machinery
Mixed Farming Raising several kinds of crops and livestock on the same farm
Farm Cooperative Organizations in which farmers share in growing and selling products
Genetically Modified Food Foods with genes altered to make them bigger or faster or be more pest-resistant
Organic Farming Using natural substances instead of chemicals to increase crop yields
Maastricht Treaty Set up the European Union
Dry Farming Way of farming in dry areas that produces crops without any irrigation and relies on farming methods that conserve soil moisture
Acid Rain Precipitation carrying large amounts of dissolved acids which damages buildings, forests, and crops, and kills wildlife
Meltwater The result of melting snow and ice
Acid Deposition Wet or dry acid pollution that falls to the ground
Environmentalist Person concerned with the quality of the environment
Global Warming Gradual warming of the earth and it's atmosphere that may be caused in part by pollution and an increase in the greenhouse effect
Created by: Dancer24016