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I/O Psych Ch 11

Organizational Communication

QuestionAnswer
things people surround themselves with (clothes, jewelry, office decorations, cars, and so forth) that communicate information about the person artifacts
type of rating error in which raters base their rating of an employee during one rating period on the ratings the rater gave during a previous period assimilation
form of upward communication in which a survey is conducted to determine employee attitudes about an organization attitude survey
test developed by Geier and Downey that measures individual listening styles Attitudinal Listening Profile
method of downward communication in which informal or relatively unimportant written information is posted in a public place bulletin board
transmission of business-related information among employees, management, and customers business communication
office arranged so that a visitor must sit across from the person behind the desk closed desk arrangement
pattern of grapevine communication in which a message is passed to a select group of people who each in turn pass the message to a few select others cluster grapevine
medium by which a communication is transmitted communication channel
method of determining the read- ability level of written material by looking at the number of commonly known words used in the document Dale-Chall Index
employees who receive much grapevine information but who seldom pass it on to others dead-enders
communication within an organization in which the direction of communication is from management to employees downward communication
listening style of a person who cares primarily about the feelings of the speaker empathic listening
deviation from a standard of quality; also a type of response to communication overload that involves processing all information but processing some of it incorrectly error
response to communication overload in which the employee leaves the organization to reduce the stress escape
method of determining the readability level of written material by analyzing average sentence length and the number of syllables per 100 words Flesch Index
method of determining the readability level of written material by analyzing sentence length and the number of three-syllable words FOG Index
method of determining the readability level of written material by analyzing sentence length and the average number of syllables per word Fry Readability Graph
person who screens potential communication for someone else and allows only the most important information to pass through gatekeeper
poorly substantiated information and insignificant information that is primarily about individuals gossip
pattern of grapevine communication in which a message is passed to only a select group of individuals gossip grapevine
unofficial, informal communication network grapevine
listening style of a person who cares about only the main points of a communication inclusive listening
communication among employees in an organization that is not directly related to the completion of an organizational task informal communication
exchange of a message between two individuals across a communication channel interpersonal communication
distance zone within 18 inches of a person, where only people with a close relationship to the person are allowed to enter intimacy zone
computer-based employee communication network used exclusively by one organization intranet
employee who receives less than half of all grapevine information isolate
listening style of a person who cares about only interesting information leisure listening
person who acts as an intermediary between employees and management; or the type of employee who both sends and receives most grapevine information liaison
idea that people prefer not to pass on unpleasant information, with the result that important information is not always communicated minimize unpleasant messages effect
strategy for coping with communication overload in which an organization reduces the amount of communication going to one person by directing some of it to another person multiple channels
method of downward communication typically used to communicate organizational feedback and celebrate employee success newsletters
any variable concerning or affecting the channel that interferes with the proper reception of a message noise
listening style of a person who cares about only information that is consistent with his or her way of thinking nonconforming listening
person who investigates employees’ complaints and solves problems ombudsperson
response to communication overload that involves the conscious decision not to process certain types of information omission
office arranged so that a visitor can sit adjacent to rather than across from the person behind the desk open desk arrangement
distance zone from 18 inches to four feet from a person that is usually reserved for friends and acquaintances personal distance zone
formal method of downward communication in which an organization’s rules and procedures are placed in a manual policy manual
pattern of grapevine communication in which a message is passed randomly among all employees probability grapevine
physical distance between people proximity
distance greater than 12 feet from a person that is typical of the interpersonal space allowed for social interactions such as large group lectures public distance zone
method of coping with communication overload that involves organizing work into an order in which it will be handled queuing
poorly substantiated information that is passed along the grapevine rumor
communication passed consecutively from one person to another serial communication
describes a message in which interesting and unusual information has been kept in the message when it is passed from one person to another sharpen
pattern of grapevine communication in which a message is passed in a chain-like fashion from one person to the next until the chain is broken single-strand grapevine
interpersonal distance from 4 to 12 feet from a person that is typically used for business and for interacting with strangers social distance zone
listening style of a person who pays attention mainly to the way in which words are spoken stylistic listening
form of upward communication in which employees are asked to place their suggestions in a box suggestion box
listening style of a person who cares about only facts and details technical listening
employee who serves as a liaison between unionized employees and management union steward
communication within an organization in which the direction of communication is from employees up to management upward communication
A top executive never receives negative information from her staff. This is known as __ and is a disadvantage of __ communication. MUM effect; serial
methods of downward communication policy manual, bulletin board, & memo
good email etiquette includes greeting, don't write in all caps, & one-word subject line
__ communication is the exchange of a message across a communication channel from one person to another interpersonal
nonverbal communication refers to way in which a person uses space, body language, & how a person uses time
tone, tempo, and volume in which one speaks is a nonverbal cue known as paralanguage
__ is a conscious decision not to process certain information whereas __ is an attempt to deal with every message received omission; error
methods for handling communication overload use of a gatekeeper, use of multiple channels, & omission
If you made an oral presentation to your class on styles of listening, __ listeners would most likely remember the number of listening styles technical
Dale-Chall Index is the __ index that uses the number of uncommon words is the readability
upward, downward, business, & informal communication in organizations
employees speak directly to management in environment with "open door" policy ideal upward communication
may not be workable because employees often feel threatened by managers & may not be willing to openly communication bad news or complaints direct upward communication
serial communication is used to __ number of different people communicating with top executive minimize
drawback of serial communication is that content & tone of message change as it moves from person to person
drawback of serial communication is that bad news and complaints are seldom relayed, in part due to stress associated with delivering bad news
drawback of serial communication is that it is less effective the farther away 2 people are from one another
major source of power is __ __ to an executive physical proximity
may reduce the power of proximity when communication is formal email
because of problems with serial communication organizations use other methods to facilitate upward communications, including attitude survey, focus groups, suggestions boxes, & 3rd parties
__ surveys are usually conducted annually by an outside consultant who administers a questionnaire attitude
attitude surveys ask employees to rate their opinions on such factors as satisfaction w/pay, working conditions, & supervisors
attitude surveys allow employees to list __ or __ that they want management to read complaints; suggestions
attitude surveys are only useful if an organization takes results seriously
to __ __, organizations should attitude survey results with employees increase trust
if attitude survey results are to be shared management must __ __ results share all
outside consultant meets with groups of current employees to get their opinions & suggestions, which is then passed on to management focus group
in order to spur candid responses by employees, focus group consultants are not told names of employees
although exit interviews are sometimes emotionally charged, organization can learn a lot by listening to the __ __ that employee is leaving real reason
the use of 1-800-numbers is a method of __ communication upward
biggest advantages of suggestion/complaint boxes is they allow employees to __ __ in an anonymous fashion immediately communicate
for suggestion/complaint boxes to be beneficial management must respond to them in a timely manner
liaisons and ombudsperson are methods that can __ upward communication increase
are responsible for taking employee complaints/suggestions & personally working w/management to find solutions liaisons & ombudspersons
advantage of ombudspersons is that they are neutral
advantage of ombudspersons is that they work for a solution that is acceptable to both employees & management
ombudspersons are typically supervised at the __ level vice-presidential
ombudsperson method is not often used because organizations do not want the expense of an employee who does not produce
role of ombudsperson, in organizations with unions, is typically handled by the union __ steward
are often adversarial in organizations with unions management/union relationships
union stewards often have difficult time, when acting as ombudsperson, because they are not perceived by management or the union are being neutral
originally __ communication involved newsletters designed to bolster employee morale by discussing happy events downward
downward communication is now seen as a(n) __ __ of keeping employees informed key method
downward communication is now seen as key method of communicating __ __ needed by employees to perform their jobs vital information
bulletin boards, policy manuals, newsletters, & intranets are all examples of downward communication
main use of bulletin boards is to communicate __ __ non-work-related opportunities
seldom seen on bulletin boards important information
electronic bulletin boards that allow display of even more current information in-house message networks
policy manuals are __ __ by courts of law legally binding
most manuals are written in __ __ language highly technical
policy manuals should be written in less technical style to encourage employees to __ __ as well as to make them easier to understand read them
because policy manuals are considered __ __ by courts, they must be updated each time a policy changes binding contracts
policy manuals should always contain a(n) __ statement at-will
policy manuals should always contain disclaimer that that the handbook does not create either a(n) __ or __ contract expressed; implied
policy manuals should always contain disclaimer that the material in present handbook __ material in previous handbooks supersedes
policy manuals should always contain disclaimer that the handbook can be changed only __ __ by president or organization, and it can be changed __ at any time in writing; unilaterally
policy manuals should always contain disclaimer that employees are subject to __ of any amendments, detentions, & changes in the handbook provisions
to reduce __ __ with policy manuals most organizations have 2 types of manuals length problems
policy manuals are very __ & __, containing all of the rules & policies under which the organization operates specific; lengthy
policy manual that is shorter & contains only the most essential policies & rules, as well as general summaries of less important rules employee handbook
newsletters discuss happy or innocuous events such as the three Bs (babies, birthdays, & ballgame scores)
newsletters are good sources of information for celebrating employee successes
newsletters are good sources of information for providing feedback on how the organization is doing
newsletters are good sources of information for providing __ about organizational changes reminders
is the trend in newsletter format cyber-publications
cyber-publications save printing expenses
cyber-publications allows for __ dissemination of information faster
cyber-publications provides greater __ for making changes & updates flexibility
intranets are being used to __ bulletin boards, newsletters, & company manuals replace
intranets are __ versions of the internet organization-wide
memos, phone calls, email, & voicemail are examples of business communication
most common method of business communication memos/memorandums
memos/memorandums have advantage of providing detailed information to large number of people in short amount of time
with the advent of __ __ the number of people who can be reached by telephone has increased conference calling
limitation of phone calls is that __ __ are not available nonverbal cues
limitation of phone calls that conversations are not __ documented
sophisticated phone answering system voicemail
used primarily to exchange general &/or timely info & ask questions email/voicemail
email/voicemail are not meant as __ for important conversations substitutes
advantage of email/voicemail is __ in use & filing of paper reduction
advantage of email/voicemail is time saved by avoiding __ __ when communicating in a short message small talk
disadvantage of voicemail is that it often results in phone tag
disadvantage of email/voicemail is it reduces opportunities for __ __ personal contact
limited to simple tasks, have short menus, & allow a caller to talk to a real person at any time during the call well-designed voice mail systems
advantage of email over voicemail is ability to __ __ sending/receiving of email easily document
advantage of email over voicemail is the opportunity to communicate with __ __ at one time many people
advantage of email over voicemail is the potential for __ __ quick responses
disadvantage of email is __ due to the absence of paralanguage misinterpretation
disadvantage of email over voicemail is tendency to be too __ informal
disadvantage of email over voicemail is increased likelihood of expressing __ __ that might not have been communicated in person negative emotions
disadvantage of email over voicemail is tendency to not __ message proof-read
preparing people for a meeting, schedule meeting, communicating common news, distributing memos, & summarizing conversations appropriate uses of email
email eliminates the factors of __ & __, so it is easy to misinterpret meaning of an email tone; body language
time demands of __ __ can result in negative employee attitudes business meetings
uses large, open office areas without walls; separated into cubicles open/landscaped office design
open/landscaped office design is also known as cube farm
idea behind open/landscaped office designs is that employees will __ __ with one another communicate better
idea behind open/landscaped office designs is easier __ __ without physical barriers of walls employee supervision
all desks are placed in large area that is completely open freestanding/bullpen design
desks are placed at uniform distances & are separated by panels into cubicle areas uniform plans
use combination of designs so that different need of each worker can be accommodated free-form workstations
wide hallway that runs through several departments boulevard
advantage of boulevards path taking a through rather than around departments encourages employee interaction
advantage of boulevard width is that it allows space for impromptu employee communication
because landscaped/open office environments __ __, organizations have developed portable offices reduce privacy
employee's computer, files, & supplies that can be wheeled into a walled office/cubicle when privacy is needed portable offices
landscaped offices can lessen productivity & job satisfaction
__ communication is transmitted through the grapevine informal
grapevines are common because they provide employees with information, power, & entertainment
increased use of __ has increased the importance of the grapevine email
single-strand, gossip, probability, & cluster are all grapevine patterns
single-stand grapevine is similar to children's game of telephone
in gossip grapevine, not everyone has a chance to receive the message
research on grapevine found that employees could be isolates, liaisons, or dead-enders
employees who both received most of the grapevine information and passed it onto others liaisons
tend to be liaisons managers
research has shown that the grapevine often contains a great deal of truth though it is often __ incomplete
type of information contained in grapevine gossip & rumors
both gossip & rumors contain __ __ information poorly substantiated
in gossip the content of the message lacks significance to the people gossiping
rumors contain information that __ __ to the lives of those communicating the message is significant
rumor will occur when available information if interesting & ambiguous
rumor serves the function of helping to __ __ of ambiguous information make sense
rumor serves the function of helping __ potential threats manage
gossip serves to entertain and supply social information
personnel changes, job security, & external reputation of organization are most common topics for rumors
rumor & gossip are often ways in which employees can relieve stress & anxiety
rumor & gossip are often ways in which employees respond to perceived __ __ in a nonaggressive way organizational wrongs
rumor & gossip are often ways in which employees maintain a(n) sense of control
rumor & gossip are often ways in which employees increase __ in an organization power
not all __ information is informal horizontal
to increase the amount of job-related horizontal communications many organizations have adopted a practice of __ __ groups self-managed work
interpersonal communication process begins w/sender __ & __ message across a communication channel encoding; transmitting
interpersonal communication process ends w/another person __ & __ the message receiving; decoding
interpersonal communications problems can occur when message person sends is not the intended message
thing about what you want to communicate, practice what you want to communicate, & learn better communication skills are ways to make sure message received is the intended message
in interpersonal communications, it is important to __ __ what you want to communicate think about
communication errors can occur when you do not __ __ what you meant to say actually say
communications can occur if you do not have the proper communication skills
may mean one thing in one situation but something else in another particular word
particular word may mean one things one one person and __ __ to another something different
a particular word can have __ __ in another language different meanings
it is important to be __ in the words we use concrete
we are often vague in the way that we communicate because we want to avoid confrontations
vagueness in communication allows us to test the waters
vagueness in communication allows us to see what a person's __ __ might be before we say what we really mean initial reaction
__ is a factor related to the use of words gender
problems in communication __ __ as a result of the communication channel through which the message is transmitted can occur
same message can be interpreted in __ __ based on the channel of communication used different ways
transmitting a message through an inappropriate channel interferes with the message's meaning & accurate interpretation
noise surrounding a __ __ can also affect the way a message is received transmission channel
nonverbal cues often lead to incorrect impressions
how we move and position our body body language
when one's body faces another it is interpreted as a sign of liking
when one's body it turned away from another it is interpreted as a sign of dislike/lack of interest
communicated by interrupting others, leaning back in a chair, moving closer to someone, or sitting while others stand superiority
making eyes contact implies interest
in casual conversation, increased eye contact is interpreted as sign of liking
can mean disinterest, discomfort, or embarrassment lack of eye contact
person who makes eye while speaking but not while listening is perceived as being powerful/dominant
raising or lowering the head or shoulder may indicate superiority or inferiority
usually indicates liking, friendship, or nurturance touching someone
when people __ they are more likely to purse their lips, raise their chin, fidget, & show nervousness than when then are not lie
__ differences occur in use of nonverbal cues gender
use of appropriate nonverbal cues is __ __ with interview scores highly correlated
ways people make __ __ __ also provides nonverbal cues about their feelings & personality use of space
given more space by others and at the same time take space from others dominant/authoritative people
status figures increase space to established __ __ between themselves & the person with whom they are dealing establish differences
use of space can enhance a person's status by adding a(n) image of importance
intimacy, personal distance, social distance, & public distance are major spatial distance zones in US
when intimacy zone is entered by strangers we generally feel uncomfortable & nervous
more readily accepted from a higher-status person than from a lower-status person tardiness
care must be taken when considering how others __ __ as there are tremendous cultural differences use time
perceived as more intelligent, friendly, & enthusiastic people with fast speech rates
men with high-pitched voices are considered weak
women with high-pitched voices are considered petite
people telling lies __ less talk
people telling lies provide fewer __ details
people telling lies __ words & phrases more often repeat
people telling lies have more uncertainty & __ __ in their voice vocal tension
people telling lies speak in __ __ than people telling the truth higher pitch
simple changes in the __ used to communicate the message can change the entire meaning tone
visitors to office with open desk arrangements perceive the office to be more comfortable
visitors to office with open desk arrangements perceive the occupants as friendlier & more trustworthy, open, interested, & extraverted
visitors rate people with __ offices as being active & busy messy
visitors rate people with __ offices as being organized & introverted clean
visitors rate people with __ offices as being active & achievement oriented organized
visitors rate offices with plants & posters as more comfortable, inviting, & hospitable
Chinese art of placement & design Feng shui
according to Feng shui, desks should never be placed __ __ from a doorway directly across
according to Feng shui, desks should always __ __ from a wall face away
according to Feng shui, desks should never be placed in the __ of a room center
did not decorate their office with anything other than standard furniture dominant, achievement-oriented managers
had photographs & clocks hung in their office more outgoing managers
had cartoons to shows that even though they were neat & compulsive, they also had a sense of humor organized managers
occupants of __ offices used twice as many decorative items windowless
amount of information contained in a message can affect the __ with which it is received accuracy
when a message contains __ __ than we can hold in memory, information becomes leveled, sharpened, & assimilated more information
when you __ some of the information in a message unimportant details are removed level
when you sharpen the information in a message interesting & unusual information is kept
when you assimilate some of the information in a message it is __ to fit your own beliefs & knowledge modified
occurs when employee receives more communication than they can handle communication overload
omission, error, queuing, escape, using a gatekeeper, or using multiple channels are all adaptions/adjustments to reduce stress of communication overload
omission technique can work to reduce stress of communication overload if the overload is temporary
omission technique to reduce stress of communication overload will be __ if an employee misses an important communication ineffective
in an employee attempting to deal w/every message received, each processed message will contain a(n) reception error
are not intentional but result from processing more than can be handled processing errors
probability of error in communication can be reduced by making the message redundant
probability of error in communication can be reduced having the recipient __ the message verify
can be based on such variables as message's importance, timeliness, or sender order of queuing
in using queuing method of handling communication overload all of the work will eventually get done
queues are effective only if communication overload is temporary
in using the queuing technique, if communication overload is constant, employee will never reach message at end of queue
in prolonged communication overload a common employee response is escape, through absenteeism/resignation
escape can be beneficial to employee if it __ mental & physical health by relieving stress protects
response to communication overload by many __ is use of gatekeeper executives
when communication overload occurs, employees will react in ways that reduce the increased stress
organization must __ when communication overload occurs recognize
when communication overload occurs organization must aggressively adopt a(n) __ __ to deal with it acceptable strategy
most important communication skill that a supervisor should master listening
70% of white-collar workday is spent communicating
a manager spends more __ __ than any other single activity time listening
listening is a(n) __ skill
listening __ is poor effectiveness
in order to increase listening effectiveness the most important thing we can recognize is that every person has a particular listening style
(LISTEN) leisure, inclusive, stylistic, technical, empathetic, & nonconforming listening styles postulated by Attitudinal Listening profile
leisure listening is practiced by "good time" people who listen only for words that indicate pleasure
inclusive listening in practiced by people who listen for the __ __ behind communications main ideas
inclusive listening style can be an advantage when trying to cut through a jungle of detail
inclusive listening style can be a disadvantage when detail is important
stylistic listening is practiced by people who listen to the __ the communication is presented way
stylistic listeners will not listen unless the speaker's style is appropriate
stylistic listeners will not listen unless the speaker looks the part
technical listening is practiced by those who want just the facts
technical listeners __ & __ large amounts of detail hears; retains
technical listeners does not hear meaning of the details retained
empathic listening tunes into the __ of the speaker feelings
empathetic listing is the most likely listening type to pay attention to nonverbal cues
nonconforming listening is practiced by individuals who attend only to information that is consistent to their own way of thinking
if nonconforming listeners does __ __ with a speaker, they will not listen to what the speaker says not agree
nonconforming listeners will pay attention only to those people they consider to be strong or have authority
becoming aware of your own listening style allows you to understand the __ you use when listening to others filter
understanding the six listening styles can lead to better communication with others
most practical method to gauge a listener's listening style is to use the person's __ __ as an indicator of listening style speaking style
can be affected by the receiver's emotional state interpretation of a message
factor that can affect the way in which a received message is interpreted cognitive ability
affect our ability to interpret information we receive, as we process every piece of info that is consistent with our opinion bias
one of most common methods to increase interpersonal communication skills is __ __ conducted by an outside consultant training workshop
one approach to improving the quality of written communications concentrates on improving the writer's skills
one approach to improving the quality of written communications concentrates on making material easier to read
with increased use of email __ __ skills are more essential than ever effective writing
consulting firms specialize in improvement of employee writing skills by teaching employees the most important concepts of writing
Broadbent advises that writing can be improved when writers value what they write
Broadbent advises that writing can be improved when writers set personal standard & goals
Broadbent advises that writing can be improved when writers spend considerable time doing their own editing
when trying to improve employees writing they need to analyze the audience's readability
policy requiring that documents be written at a level that could be understood by the general public plain talk
when using __ __ organization analyzes material to be read and then compares its readability level with typical education of employees who will read the document readability indices
each readability index uses a slightly different formula or method
all of the readability indices show reasonable __ reliability
all of the readability indices __ __ with one another correlate highly
has short sentences, uses simple rather than complicated words, & uses common rather than unusual words easily read document
measured human interest level of reading material Flesch
developed a method for determining readability of trait-based psychological tests Tysinger & Pitchford
now contain readability indices to make it easier to determine the audience level for which the document was written many word processing packages
Created by: lfrancois