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I/O Psych Ch 10

Employee Satisfaction & Committment

extent to which an employee wants to remain with an organization and cares about the organization affective commitment
extent to which employees believe they must remain with an organization due to the time, expense, and effort they have already put into the organization continuance commitment
perceived fairness of the decisions made in an organization distributive justice
theory of job satisfaction stating that employees will be satisfied if their ratio of effort to reward is similar to that of other employees equity theory
extent to which people believe that their success and failure is determined by external sources (e.g., luck, other people external locus of control
measure of job satisfaction in which raters place a mark under a facial expression that is most similar to the way they feel about their jobs Faces Scale
method of absenteeism control in which employees who meet an attendance standard are given a cash reward financial bonus
absenteeism control method in which games such as poker and bingo are used to reward employee attendance games
perceived fairness of the interpersonal treatment that employees receive interactional justice
extent to which people believe that they are responsible for and in control of their success or failure in life internal locus of control
measure of job satisfaction, developed by Smith/Kendall/Hulin '69, contains 100 items that yields scores on five dimensions Job Descriptive Index (JDI)
measure of the extent to which a job provides opportunities for growth, autonomy, and meaning Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS)
system in which employees are given more tasks to perform at the same time job enlargement
system in which employees are given more responsibility over the tasks and decisions related to their job job enrichment
measure of the overall level of job satisfaction Job in General Scale (JIG)
system in which employees are given the opportunity to perform several different jobs in an organization job rotation
attitude employees have toward their jobs job satisfaction
measure of job satisfaction, developed by Weiss/Dawis/England/Lofquist '67,, that yields scores on 20 dimensions Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ)
extent to which employees feel an obligation to remain with an organization normative commitment
behaviors that are not part of an employee’s job but which make the organization a better place to work (e.g., helping others, staying late) organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs)
extent to which an employee identifies with and is involved with an organization organizational commitment
15-item questionnaire that taps three organizational commitment dimensions Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ)
9-item survey that taps three aspects of organizational commitment Organizational Commitment Scale (OCS)
attendance policy in which all paid vacations, sick days, holidays, and so forth are combined paid time off (PTO)
extent to which an employee’s personality, values, attitudes, philosophy, and skills match those of the organization person/organization fit
perceived fairness of the methods used by an organization to make decisions procedural justice
employee groups that meet to propose changes that will improve productivity and the quality of work life quality circles
employee groups that meet to propose changes that will improve productivity and the quality of work life self-directed teams
states that employees model their levels of satisfaction and motivation from other employees social information processing theory
states that employees model their levels of satisfaction and motivation from other employees social learning theory
method of absenteeism control in which employees are paid for their unused sick leave well pay
job satisfaction is __ __ to organizational commitment most related
components of a core self-evaluation locus of control, self-esteem, & self-efficacy
Clay is very intelligent and Joshua is not very bright. On the basis of the meta-analysis by Griffeth, Hom, and Gaertner (2000), we would expect Clay to be ________ with his job and Joshua to be ________ with his job. intelligence is not related to job satisfaction
according to ________ "new" employees who work with highly satisfied "old" employees are more likely to be highly satisfied themselves social information processing theory
according to a meta-analysis by Colquitt and his colleagues, __ justice is most related to job performance procedural
theory hypothesizes that enriched jobs are the most satisfying job characteristics model
measurements for job satisfaction JIG, MSQ, & JDI
according to a meta-analysis by Griffeth and his colleagues (2000), absenteeism and turnover are moderately correlated (r = .21)
to help employees cope with stress and personal problems, __ employers provide employee assistance programs (EAPs) most (73%)
you would like to hire employees who will not miss work. Your best bet would be to hire applicants who score high on the personality dimension of conscientiousness
2 most common job-related attitudes studied by psychologists job satisfaction & organizational commitment
job satisfaction & organizational commitment are highly __ & resulting in __ employee behaviors correlated; similar
tend to be committed to an organization satisfied employees
are more likely to attend work, stay w/organization, arrive @ work on time, perform well, & engage in behaviors helpful to organization satisfied & committed employees
relationship between job satisfaction & performance is __ __ across people or jobs not consistent
employees strong, consistent beliefs about their level of job satisfaction; relationship between job satisfaction & performance is much stronger than it is for employers whose job satisfaction attitudes are not so well developed affective-cognitive consistency
through relationships between job satisfaction & organizational commitment and attendance, performance, tardiness, and turnover are not as large as one would expect
often job satisfaction & organizational commitment are related more to a(n) __ to quit, miss work, or reduce effort than they are to __ behaviors desire; actual
even though a theory itself may not be completely supported by research, the __ __ have generally led to increased performance or longer tenure resulting suggestions
pay, supervision, coworkers, work & promotion opportunities most commonly studies facets of job satisfaction
affective, continuance, & normative commitment motivational facets to organizational commitment
postulates that some variability in job satisfaction is due to an individual's personal tendency across situations to enjoy what they do individual difference theory
according to individual difference theory, certain type of people will generally be satisfied & motivated __ of the job they hold regardless
in order for individual difference theory to be true, it would be essential that job satisfaction be consistent across time and situations
research on the types of people that seem to be consistently satisfied with their jobs has focused on genetic predisposition, core self-evaluations, & life satisfaction
inherited personality traits are related to our tendency to have negative affectivity are related to our tendency to be satisfied with jobs genetic predisposition
tendency to have negative emotions such as fear, hostility, and anger negative affectivity
certain types of __ are associated with tendency to be satisfied/dissatisfied with one's job personalities
perceived ability to master their environment self-efficacy
people with __ locus of control perceive ability to control their environment external
emotional stability, self-esteem, self-efficacy, & external locus of control are __ __ related to people's predisposition to be satisfied with life & jobs personality variables
have high self-esteem & feeling of being competent, are emotionally stable, & believe they have control over their lives people prone to be satisfied w/jobs & life in general
Judge, Locke, Durham, & Kluger found significant correlation of emotional stability, self-esteem, self-efficacy, & external locus of control and job satisfaction (r-.41) and life satisfaction (r=.41)
tendency to have positive emotions positive affectivity
meta-analyses by Connolly/Viswesvaran and Bowling/Hendricks/Wagner indicate that overall job satisfaction, as well as different facets of job satisfaction, is related to affectivity
meta-analyses by Judge/Heller/Mount concluded that emotional stability and extraversion were __ __ to job & life satisfaction significantly related
data from International Social Survey Program indicated that employees in __ were the most satisfied Denmark
data from International Social Survey Program indicated that employees in __ were the least satisfied Hungary
data from International Social Survey Program indicated that employees in __ were ranked 14th Great Britain
data from International Social Survey Program indicated that employees in __ were ranked 7th US
study by FDS International employees in UK & Ireland had __ __ of job satisfaction highest level
study by FDS International employees in S America & Asia had __ __ of job satisfaction lowest level
relationship between intelligence & satisfaction is negligible in complex jobs
study by Ganzach suggests that bright people have slightly lower job satisfaction than do less intelligent employees in jobs that are __ __ not complex
intelligence & __ are not significantly related turnover
people who are satisfied with their jobs tend to be satisfied with life
study by Judge/Watanabe found high levels of job or life satisfaction spill over into one another
organization's should work toward fulfilling those needs it can & should help employees find __ __ to meet their other needs alternative avenues
people who are unhappy in their lives & jobs will not leave their job because they are used to being unhappy
for people who are normally happy in life, being unhappy in their job is seen as reason to find another job
deviation of a situation from the state one would like it to be discrepancy theory
test of discrepancy theory by Wanous/Poland/Premack/Davis, concluded that when an employee's __ are not met the results are lower job satisfaction(r=-.39), decreased organizational commitment (r=-.39), & increased intent to leave organization (r=-.29) expectations
Irving/Meyer found that employee's __ on the job were most related to job satisfaction experiences
Irving/Meyer found that differences between employee expectations and experiences was only __ __ to job satisfaction minimally related
when psychological contact breaches occur job satisfaction & organizational commitment go down
when psychological contact breaches occur employees intentions to leave organization increase
extent to which rewards, salary, & benefits received by employees are perceived to be consistent with their efforts and performance needs/supplies fit
extent to which employee's values, interests, personality, lifestyle, & skills match their vocation, job, organization, coworkers, & supervisor fit
employees rank __ __ as most important factor in a job interesting work
supervisors rank salary & bonus as being __ __ for employees most important
satisfaction with supervisor & coworkers is related to organization & team commitment, resulting in higher productivity, lower intent to leave, & greater willingness to help
distributive, procedural, & interactional justice are all expansions on equity theory
related to job satisfaction, organizational commitment, performance, trust, withdrawal & negative employee reactions perceived justice
greatest problems with equity & justice theories is that despite their rational sense, they are difficult to implement
because of practicality & employee's perceptions of inputs/outputs not the actual inputs/outputs it is difficult to implement equity & justice theories
even if organizations were able to maintain complete __ __, employees would then compare their ratios with those of employees from other organizations internal equity
even if equity theory were completely accurate, maintaining high level of __ __ would be difficult employee satisfaction
job rotation, job enlargement, & job enrichment are was organization can satisfy employee self-actualization needs
jobs can be enlarged through knowledge used & tasks performed
employees are allowed to make more complex decisions knowledge enlargement
employees are given more tasks of the same difficulty level to perform task enlargement
job satisfaction increases with __ enlargement knowledge
job satisfaction decreases with __ enlargement task
challenge employees by requiring them to learn to operate several different machines or perform several different task; then once mastered they move on to another job rotation & enlargement
helps to alleviate boredom by allowing employee to change tasks job rotation
better way to satisfy employee self-actualization needs job enrichment
theory that enriched jobs are more satisfying job characteristics model
allow variety of skills to be used, allow employees to complete entire task, involve task w/more meaning or importance, allow employees to make decisions, & provide feedback about performance enriched jobs
developed by Hackman & Oldham to measure extent to which enriched job characteristics are present in a given job Job Diagnostic Survey
authority to make decisions about one's own work leads to higher job satisfaction
when increased decision-making responsibilities are not possible __ __ __ can still be implemented enrichment ideas
showing employees that their jobs have meaning & that they are meeting some worthwhile goal through their work method to increase level of job enrichment
meta-analyses results indicate that quality circles __ job satisfaction & commitment in the private sector increase
meta-analyses results indicate that quality circles __ __ __ job satisfaction & commitment in the public sector do not increase
most quality improvement programs using a(n) __ __ fail to provide desired results team approach
each of us brings to a job an initial tendency to be satisfied w/life & its various aspects such as work individual-difference theory
according to discrepancy theories, we will remain satisfied with our job if it meets our various needs, wants, expectations, and values
by being aware of employee needs the employee chosen for a job whose needs are consistent w/requirements & characteristics of job
we will be more satisfied with our jobs if the tasks themselves are enjoyable to perform, according to intrinsic satisfaction & job characteristics theories
overall satisfaction can be affected by our satisfaction with __ __ of the job individual facets
we will be more satisfied is our coworkers are satisfied according to social learning theory
predict that we will become dissatisfied if rewards, punishments, & social interactions are not given without partiality according to equity & justice theories
lack of opportunity for growth, challenge, variety, autonomy, & advancement will decrease satisfaction for many people, according to job characteristics theory & Maslow's level of self-actualization
job satisfaction inventories or custom-designed satisfaction inventories measurements for job satisfaction
standard commitment inventories measurement of commitment
Faces Scale is not commonly administered in part because it lacks sufficient detail & construct validity
Faces Scale is not commonly administered in part because some employees believe it is so __ it is __ simple; demeaning
JDI is the most commonly used scale for job satisfaction
JDI consists of __ adjectives and statement that are rated by employees job-related
supervision, pay, promotional opportunities, coworkers, & work itself JDI dimensions
employee responses on JDI are not __ __ with their responses on MSQ highly correlated
measure specific aspects of job satisfaction both JDI & MSQ
JIG was developed by Ironson/Smith/Brannick/Gibson/Paul '89 because JDI & MSQ measure specific aspects of job satisfaction
JDI is useful when organization wants to measure __ __ of job satisfaction rather than __ __ overall level; specific aspects
Nagy '96 criticized many of standard measure of job satisfaction because measures only ask if employees are satisfied with particular aspect of their job, but not how important that job aspect is to them
includes 2 questions per facet; 1 asking how important facet is to employee & 1 asking how satisfied employee is with facet Nagy Job Satisfaction Scale
most measures of organizational commitment are relatively short
most measures of organizational commitment __ __ similar to affective, continuance, & normative commitment tap aspects
most commonly used measure of organizational commitment; has 24 items, 8 each for 3 factors of affective, continuance, & normative commitment Allen and Meyer survey
acceptance of organization's values & goals, willingness to work to help organization, & desire to remain w/organization OCQ commitment factors
when using OCQ most people __ factor to yield __ __ commitment score combine; one overall
identification, exchange, & affiliation OCS aspects of commitment
most organizations tap their employees' levels of job satisfaction by using custom-designed inventories
advantage to custom-designed inventories is that organization can ask employees questions specific to their organization
comparing US absenteeism rates with other countries is difficult because many countries require employers to provide days off for absenteeism
80% of low-paid or part-time employees, in the US, do not get a(n) single day of paid absence
globally organizations are concerned with absenteeism because of its high monetary cost
globally organizations are concerned with absenteeism because it is correlated with turnover
absenteeism is thought to be a warning sign of intended turnover
punishment will __ absenteeism only if employees make conscious decisions about attending reduce
wellness programs with increase absenteeism only if it is mostly due of illness
most recent CCH survey on unscheduled absenteeism 65% of absences were due to reasons other than employee illness
according to CareerBuilder.com poll 35% of employees admitted to taking at least 1 sick day per year even though they were not sick
according to CareerBuilder.com poll top reasons for taking off work were attending to personal errands, catching up on sleep, & relaxing
if employees make conscious decisions about attending work, attendance can be increased through rewarding attendance, disciplining absenteeism, & keeping accurate attendance records
use money to reward employees for achieving certain levels of attendance financial incentive programs
well pay, financial bonus, & games are examples of financial incentives
PTO is also known as paid-leave bank (PLB)
human resource directors rate buy-back programs, paid-leave banks, & disciplinary action as the most effective absence control methods
provide employees with certificates, coffee mugs, plaques, lapel pins, watches, etc formal recognition programs
human resource directors do not perceive formal recognition programs to be as effective as many of the other programs
many organizations are eliminating perfect-attendance incentives out of concern that such programs might violate Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA)
absenteeism can be __ through punish/discipline reduced
can range from giving a warning or less popular work assignment to firing an employee discipline
discipline works well, especially when combined with __ __ for attending positive reinforcement
way to increase __ __ for missing work is through policy & record keeping negative consequences
most organizations measure absenteeism by counting __ of days missed frequency
better way to record absenteeism is through; missing one day or three consecutive days each counts as one instances
by decreasing number of times that person can miss work, odds increase that employee will use sick leave only for an actual illness
absenteeism can be decreased by setting attendance goals
absenteeism can be decreased by providing feedback on how well the employees are reaching attendance goals
absenteeism can be reduced by removing __ __ employees associate with going to work negative factors
the greater the __ __, the lower job satisfaction & commitment, greater probability that most people will want to skip work job stress
physical danger, boredom, overload, conflict, & bad management practices sources of stress at work
1st step to eliminate negative factors is to __ __ of those that bother employees become aware
programs designed to reduce job-related stress are successful in reducing employee stress levels, but only have __ __ on reducing absenteeism negligible effect
use professional counselors to deal with employee problems Employee Assistance Programs (EAP)
75% of employers offer some form of EAP
motivation for EAPs may be good but little if any __ __ supports their effectiveness empirical evidence
independently operated EAPs typically claim a 3 to 1 return on dollars invested through increased productivity & reduced absenteeism/turnover
about 35% of employee absenteeism is due to employee illness
to reduce absenteeism related to illness organization are implementing variety of wellness programs
work-site fitness programs have small but significant effect on reducing absenteeism
there is a theory of absenteeism that postulates that one reason people miss work is result of particular set of personality traits
Kovach et al '88 found that the best predictor of student attendance in general psychology courses was compulsive, rule-oriented personality
individuals high is personality trait of conscientiousness and low is extraversion were least likely to miss work
many times an individual will miss work because of events or conditions that are beyond management's control
one study found that job satisfaction best predicted attendance on days with poor weather
advertising charges, employment agency fees, referral bonuses, recruitment travel costs, salaries & benefits associated w/employees time spent processing applications & interviewing candidates, & relocation expenses for new employee are all visible costs of turnover
loss of productivity associated w/employee leaving, other employees trying to do extra work, no productivity occurring from vacant position, & lower productivity associated w/new employee being trained are all hidden costs of turnover
overtime of employees covering duties of vacant position & training costs once replacement is hired are additional hidden costs of turnover
there is a negative correlation on the effect of performance such that higher turnover rates will result in lower organizational performance
because some turnover is healthy for an organization, there is __ __ between turnover and performance U-shaped relationship
moderate amount of turnover will result in higher performance
is strongest when organizations turnover rate is low, and this effect then diminishes as turnover rates climb negative effect of turnover
effect of turnover on organizational performance is __ by strength of organizations' HR efforts mediated
turnover will most affect organizations that do not invest in their employees
turnover will least affect organizations that spend time & money to develop their employees
research seems to support idea that employee leaving organization will most affect organization's performance when monthly turnover rate for organization is low
research seems to support idea that employee leaving organization will have __ __ on performance when turnover rate is high diminishing effect
1st step in reducing turnover is to find out __ employees are leaving why
attitude surveys to current employees and exit interviews w/employees leaving, as well as salary surveys can be used to determine why employees are leaving
89% of managers believe employees leave for more __, yet 88% of employees say they left for __ __ money; other reasons
process of disengagement for the organization that can take days, weeks, months employee turnover
unavoidable reasons, advancement, unmet needs, escape, & unmet expectations are typical reasons employees leave their jobs
school starting or ending, job transfer of spouse, employee illness/death, or family issues are all unavoidable turnover
described as extent to which employees have links to their jobs and community, important of these links, & ease with which these links could be broken & reestablished elsewhere embeddedness
behaviors aimed at individuals & those aimed at organization counterproductive behaviors
gossip, playing negative politics, harassment, incivility, workplace violence,& bullying are counterproductive behaviors aimed at individuals
theft & sabotage are counterproductive behaviors aimed at organization
negative correlation between OCBs and employee __ __ counterproductive behavior
Created by: lfrancois