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Exam II

Chp 10-12

VocabDefinitions
Cognition mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
Concept mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
Prototype mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to the prototype provides a quick easy method for including items in a category
Algorithm methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier, but also more error-prone use of heuristics
Heuristic simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently, speedy but error-prone
Insight sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem, contrasts with strategy-based solutions
Confirmation Bias tendency to search for info that confirms one's perceptions
Fixation inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving
Mental set tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, especially a way that has been successful in the past. may or may not be helpful in solving new problem
Functional fixedness tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving
Representativeness heuristic judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant info
Availability Heuristic Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume them as common
Overconfidence tendency to be more confident than correct - to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments
Framing the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can sifnificantly affect decisions and judgments
Belief Bias tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes, by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or vice versa
Belief perserverance clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
Artificial Intelligence a science of designing and programming computer systems to do intelligent things and to simulate human thought processes, like intuitive reasoning, learning, and understanding language
Computer Neural Networks Computer circuits that mimic the brain's interconnected neural cells, performing tasks such as learning to recognize visual patterns and smells
Language Spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning
Phoneme a spoken language, the smallesest distinctive sound unit
Morpheme the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word like a prefix
Grammar in language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
Semantics Set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a language; also studies meanings
Syntax rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a language
babbling stage from 3-4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
One-word stage stage in speech (1-2 years) in which a child speaks mostly in single words
Two-word stage (age 2) stage of speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements
Telegraphic speech early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram "go car" using mostly nouns an verbs
Linguistic determinism Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
Intelligence test method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores
Mental Age measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet'; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. a child who does as well as the average 8 year old has a mental age of an 8 year old
Stanford Binet American revision of binet's original intelligence test
Intelligence quotient (IQ) defined originally as the ration of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100.
Intelligence Mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
Factor analysis statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one's total score
General Intelligence general intelligence factor that Spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abilites and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test
Savant syndrome condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing
Emotional Intelligence ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions
Creativity ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
Aptitude test test designed to predict a person's future perfomance; aptitude is the capacity to learn
Achievement test test designed to assess what a person has learned
Wechsler Adult intelligence Scale (WAIS) most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance subtests
Standardization defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested "standardization group."
Normal curve symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes
Reliability extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of score on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting
Validity extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to
Content Validity extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest (like a driving test that samples driving tasks)
Criterion behavior (like college grades) that a test (like SAT) is designed to predict; thus, the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity
Predictive Validity success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior.
Mental Retardation Condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score below 70 with difficulty adapting to the demands of life
Stereotype threat a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype
Motivation need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
Instinct a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
Drive-reduction theory idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
Homeostasis tendency to maintain a balanced or constant inernal state, like regulation of body temp or blood glucose
Incentive positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
Hierarchy of needs Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active
Glucose Form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When it is low, we feel hunger
Set point Point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may acte to restore the lost weight
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMI) The body's resting rate of energy expenditure
Anorexia Nervosa Eating disorder in which a normal-weight person diets and becomes significantly (15% or more) underweight, yet, still thinks they are fat, and continues to starve
Bulimia nervosa eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise
Sexual Response Cycle four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson- Excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
Refractory Period resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm
Sexual disorder problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or funcioning
Estrogen Sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males.
Sexual Orientation enduring sexual attraction toward members of either same or opposite sex
Flow Completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal enagement of one's skills
Industrial Organizational Psychology Application of psychological concepts and methosd to optimizing human behavior in work places
Personnel psychology Subfield of I/O that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development
Organizational Psychology Subfield of I/O that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change
Structured interviews interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales
Achievement motivations desire for significant accomplishment: for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standard
Task leadership Goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals
Social leadership Group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support
Theory X assumes that workers are basically lazy, error-prone, and extrinsically motivated by money and thus, should be directed from above
Theory Y assumes that, given challenge and freedom, workers are motivated to achieve self-esteem and to demonstrate their competence and creativity
Created by: ms.mhill