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IR EXAM 2

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QuestionAnswer
Which of Allison’s model uses standard operating procedures? Organizational process model
Which of Allison’s models tries to find the best possible solution by setting goals, evaluating their relative importance, calculating costs and benefits of each possible course of action, and choosing one with the highest benefits and the lowest costs? Rational model of decision making
Which of Allison’s models seek their own interest as the best means to national interest? Government/ Bureaucratic model.
True or false: Realists believe that both states and individuals are rational? True
If you were in Roosevelt’s position and you had the choice to invade or use the nuclear bombs, what would you choose? Does this make you irrational? Individual decisions depend on who makes it decision makers have varying values and beliefs, and unique personalities, personal experiences, intellectual capabilities, and personal ways picking shit. What's rational to one may be irrational to another
What are the three systematic ways that individual decision making diverges from the rational model? affective bias- emotions are wieghted over cost benefit calc misperceptions and selective perceptions. Cognitive biases- rational calculations are distorted by limitations of the human brain
What is satisficing? Finding a satisfactory solution to a problem that may not be “the best” solution, but it works. It is “good enough”.
What is bounded rationality? says that in dm the rationality of individuals is limited by the info they have the cognitive limitations of their minds and the finite amount of time they have to make decisions by Herbert Simon as an alternative for mathematical modeling for dm
dm decision making
What are the two phases decision makers go through? -The editing phase- they frame the option available and the probabilities of various outcomes associated with each option. -The evaluation phase- they asses the options and choose one. Evaluations take place by comparison with a reference point.
In Robert Jervis’s Hypothesis on Misperception (Pgs 192-203 Essential Readings) what is his main argument? challenges rational-choice view of IR saying that misperception can undermine the real-world accuracy of game theory models, misperception is rational, not wrong, and everyone is subject to interpretation which is not bad unless you cant change your views
What are the two models Allison did not suggest? Presidential Management Model and the Nixon and Kissinger model
What does it mean to be a part of groupthink? When groups to reach decisions without accurately assessing their consequences, because individual members tend to go along with the ideas that they think others support rather than considering other options and speaking out about their own true opinions
Political violence carried out by the militaries of states. Traditionally state oriented, and often declared, or at least endorsed by governments- Whose definition of war is this? Goldstein
War is politics by other means. War is the last extension of the political act. It is rational, and goal oriented- whose definition of war is this? Clausewitz
What are the individual levels of analysis? Individual level, domestic level, and systematic/global level of analysis.
16. Which type of war includes military actions carried out to gain some objective short of the surrender and occupation of the enemy? Limited War
Which war is a war over control of the entire world order? Hegemonic War
Which war refers to war between groups in a state trying to create, or prevent, a new government for the entire state or some territorial part of it? to change the system of govt, to replace the people in it, or to split a new region off as a new state. Civil war
19. Which war is warfare by one state waged to conquer and occupy another state? The goal is to reach the capital city and force surrender of the government which can then be replaced with the victor’s choosing. Total War
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