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Vocab IX

Memory

QuestionAnswer
Memory The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
Flashbulb Memory A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
Encoding The processing of information into the memory system by extracting meaning
Storage The retention of encoded information over time
Retrieval The process of getting information out of memory storage
Sensory Memory The immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system
Short Term Memory Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing
Long Term Memory The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system
Automatic Processing Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time and frequency, and of well learned information, such as word meanings
Effortful Processing Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
Rehearsal The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
Spacing Effect The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
Serial Position Effect Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
Visual Encoding The encoding of picture images
Acoustic Encoding The encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
Semantic Encoding The encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
Imagery Mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding
Mnemonics Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
Chunking Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
Ionic Memory A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
Echoic Memory A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
Long Term Potentiation (LTP) An increase in a synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation
Amnesia The loss of memory
Implicit Memory Retention independent of conscious recollection. Also called procedural memory
Explicit Memory Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare”; Also called declarative memory
Hippocampus A neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage
Recall A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill in the blank test
Recognition A measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple choice test
Relearning A memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
Priming The activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory Déjà vu
Mood Congruent Memory The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood
Proactive Interference The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
Retroactive Inference The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
Repression In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
Misinformation Effect Incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event
Source Amnesia Attributing to the wrong source an event that we have experienced, hear about, read about, or imagined
Created by: saxplayer2011