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EPPP Clinical

White & Black racial identity development model

QuestionAnswer
White racial identity development model was developed by Helms
White racial identity development model proposes That identity development involves 2 phases: abandoning racism and developing a nonracist white identity.
Black racial identity development model was developed by Cross
Black racial identity development model proposes identity development as involving a shift from black self-hatred to black self-acceptance and consisted of five stages: pre-encounter, encounter, immersion-emersion, internali\ation, and internalization-commitment.
Pre-encounter: Black racial id dev model: Race and racial identity have low salience during the pre-encounter stage. Individuals in the assimilation substage have adopted a mainstream id, while those in the anti-black substage have accepted neg beliefs about blacks
Individuals in the pre-encounter stage usually perfer a White therapist.
encounter Exposure to a single significant race-related event or series of events leads to greater racial/cultural awareness and an interest in developing a black id.
Individuals in the encounter stage usually perfer a therapist of the same race.
immersion substage race and racial id have high salience during this stage. Person in this substage person idealizes blk and blk culture and feels a great deal of rage toward whites plus guilt and anxiety about his own previous lack of awareness of race.
emmersion substage race and racial id have high salience during this stage. Person in this substage have intense emotions suside, but individual rejects all aspects of the white culture and begins to internalize a black id.
immersion/emmersion stage Race and racial id have high salience during this stage. Cross refers to the attitudes associated with these two substages as intense black involvement and anti-white, respectively.
Internalization: Race continues to have high salience individuals in this stage adopted one of three id. people in this stage (especially those who have adopted an afrocentric id) may actively work to eradicate racism and in therapy, may exhibit healthy cultural paranoia.
contact status Person has little awareness of racism and of his/her racial id and may exhibit unsophisticated beh that reflect racist attitudes and beliefs.
contact status infomation processing strategy (IPS) or methods the individual uses to reduce discomfort related to racial issues. Obliviousness and denial
disintegration status infomation processing strategy (IPS) or methods the individual uses to reduce discomfort related to racial issues. suppression of info and ambivalence
reintegration status infomation processing strategy (IPS) or methods the individual uses to reduce discomfort related to racial issues. selective perception and negative out-group distortion
pseudo-independence status infomation processing strategy (IPS) or methods the individual uses to reduce discomfort related to racial issues. selective persception and reshaping reality
immersion-emersion status infomation processing strategy (IPS) or methods the individual uses to reduce discomfort related to racial issues. hypervigilence and reshaping
autonomy status infomation processing strategy (IPS) or methods the individual uses to reduce discomfort related to racial issues. flexibility and complexity
Disintegration status increasing awareness of race and racism leads to confusion and emotional conflict. to reduce internal dissonance, the person may over-identify with member of minority groups, act in paternalistic ways towards them or retreat into white society.
Reintregration status Individual attempts to resolve the moral dilemmas associated with the disintegration status by idealizing white society and denigrating members of minority groups. May blame minority group members for their prob and view wht as the victims of reverse disc
pseudo-independence status: a personally jarring event/series of events causes the person to question his racist views & acknowledge role whites have had in perpetrating racism. person is interested in understanding racial/cultural diff but does so only on an intellectual level.
immersion-emersion status Individual explores what it means to be wht, confronts his own biases & begins to understand the ways she benefits from wht priv.
Autonomy status Individual internalizes a nonracist wht id that includes an appreciation of and respect for racial/cultural differences and similarities. She actively seeks out interactions with members of diverse groups.
Created by: ljane79