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Antidiabetic Agents

Lilley Pharmocology and the Nursing Process, Chapter 31, Antidiabetic Agents

Sx of hyperglycemia Increase pulse, abnormal breathing & fruity odor to their breath
Sx of hypoglycemia Weakness, nervousness, cold & clammy skin, sweating, paleness & shallow, rapid breathing
What is insulin's function in the body? Takes glucose from the blood and puts it in the liver to be stored.
What is the function of oral hypoglycemics? To stimulate insulin secretion from the pancreas as well as enhance insulin's effectiveness.
What is Glucagon? Glucagon is the second hormone secreted by the pancreas and is responsible for initiating glycogenolysis.
What is Glycogeonlysis? Glycogenolysis opposes the action of insulin; it increases the blood glucose level.
What is Glycogen? Glycogen is the storage of glucose, and most of it is stored in the liver. It is broken down by the glucagon, cortisol and epinephrine.
What is another name for Type I diabetes mellitus? Insulin dependent diabetes (IDDM) or juvenile-onset diabetes.
Besides insulin production or lack of, what other factors can affect blood glucose levels? Illness, infection vomiting, inability to eat or stress.
What happens in Type I diabetes mellitus? Little or no endogenous insulin is produced. Less common than type 2 and pts usually are nonobese.
What happens in Type II diabetes mellitus? Insulin secretion is usually normal. It is more common in
What is another name for Type II diabetes mellitus? Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or Adult-onset diabetes.
What are the complications associated with diabetes? Retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, coronary artery disease.
What is DKA? Diabetic Ketoacidosis.
What is Diabetic Ketoacidosis and what is it's cause? It is a severe complication of uncontrolled diabetes. It results when the body uses sources of energy other than glucose, such as fatty acids. Fatty acids are broken down into ketones, which leads to acidosis.
Which insulin is cloudy? Long term insulin
Which insulin is clear? Short term insulin
What is rapid acting insulin? Rapid acting insulin products have the most rapid onset of action (roughly 15 min) but often also a shorter duration of action than other insulin categories.
What are the two rapid acting insulin products? Insulin lispro (Humalog) and insulin aspart (Novolog)
What is short acting or regular insulin? Was the first insulin product. Can be dosed via IV bolus or IM and acts alot like rapid acting, but the action is not quite as fast. Usually 30-60 min.
What are examples of short acting insulin? Humulin R, Novolin R, Velosulin BR and the porcine product Regular Iletin II
What is intermediate acting insulin? Slower in onset and more prolonged that rapid or short acting insulins. Usually 2-6 hrs and lasts 14 to 24 hrs
What are some examples of intermediate acting insulin? Humulin L, Novolin L, porcine product-Lente Iletin II and Humulin N, Novolin N and the procine product-NPH Iletin II
What is long acting insulin? Long acting insulin onset 6-14 hrs and duration is 20-36 hrs.
Why do some diabetics need both rapid or short and long term insulins? Long acting insulin keeps glucose levels balanced on a regular basis while rapid or short term keeps glucose levels balance for meals when glucose levels can spike.
Created by: egarr111



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