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BHSWG concepts #2

BHSWG- Human Geography terms part 1

BIRTH RATE The number of live births per thousand people
DEATH RATE The number of deaths per thousand people
FERTLITY RATE This shows the average number of children a woman of childbearing years would have in her lifetime, if she had children at the current rate for her country
INFANT MORTALITY RATE The number of deaths among infants under age one per thousand live births.
CARRYING CAPACITY The number of organisms a piece of land can support.
POPULATION DENSITY The average number of people who live in a measurable area, such as a square mile. This figure is determined by dividing the number of inhabitants in an area by the total amount of land they occupy
POPULATION PYRAMID A graphic device that shows sex and age distribution of a population. This is used to examine how events in society, such as wars, famine, or epidemics, affect the population of a country or region
NATURAL INCREASE Determines the rate at which population is growing by subtracting the death rate from the birth rate
PUSH PULL FACTORS The factors involved that would cause someone to migrate from one location to another.
IMMIGRATION the act of moving into a country for the purpose of permanent residence
EMIGRATION the act of leaving one’s country or region to settle in another.
CULTURE The total of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors shared by and passed on by the members of a specific group.
DIALECT Versions of a language; this reflects changes in speech patterns related to class, region, or other cultural changes.
ETHNIC GROUP A specific group of people that share language, customs, and a common heritage. This group has an identity as a separate group of people within the region where they live.
CULTURAL HEARTH A site of innovation from which basic ideas, materials, and technology diffuse to many cultures.
CULTURAL DIFFUSION The spread of ideas, inventions, or patterns of behavior between people of different societies, as they come into contact with one another.
ACCULTURATION This occurs when a society changes because it accepts or adopts an innovation.
INNOVATION Taking existing technology and resources and creating something new to meet a need.
DIALECT Versions of a language; this reflects changes in speech patterns related to class, region, or other cultural changes.
RELIGION A belief in a supernatural power or powers that are regarded as the creators and maintainers of the universe.
MONOTHEISM A belief in one god. (Ex- Christianty, Islam, Judaism)
POLYTHEISM A belief in many gods. (Ex- Hinduism)
ANIMISM Often called “traditional”, this is a belief in divine forces in nature
SYNCRETISM the blending of different religious beliefs
NATION Refers to a group of people with a common culture living in a territory and having a strong sense of unity.
STATE This term describes an independent unit that occupies a specific territory and has full control of its internal and external affairs.
NATION-STATE A nation and a state that occupy the same territory.
DEMOCRACY In this type of government, citizens hold political power, either directly or through elected representatives. (Ex- USA)
COMMUNISM In this government and economic system, nearly all political power and means of production are held by the government, in the name of all the people. (Ex- China)
MONARCHY In this type of government a ruling family headed by a king or queen holds political power and may or may not share the power with citizen bodies. (Ex- the United Kingdom or Saudi Arabia.)
DICTATORSHIP In this type of government an individual or group holds complete political power. (Ex- North Korea)
ECONOMY This consists of the production and exchange of goods and services among a group of people.
ECONOMIC SYSTEM The way people produce and exchange goods and services
MARKET ECONOMY In this type of economy, production of goods and services is determined by the demand from consumers. Also called capitalism.
MIXED ECONOMY This type of economy is a combination of command and market economies and provides goods and services so that all people will benefit.
COMMAND ECONOMY In this type of economy, production of goods and services is determined by a central government, which usually owns the means of production. Production does not necessarily reflect the consumer demand. Also called a planned economy.
TRADITIONAL ECONOMY In this type of economy, goods and services are traded without exchanging money (barter).
PRIMARY ACTIVITY This type of activity involves gathering raw materials such as timber for immediate use or to use in the making of a final product.
SECONDARY ACTIVITY This type of activity involves adding value to materials by changing their form. Manufacturing automobiles is an example.
TERTIARY ACTIVITY This type of activity involves providing business or professional services. Salespeople, teachers, or doctors are examples.
QUATERNARY ACTIVITY This type of activity involves providing information, management, and research services by highly-trained persons.
PER CAPITA INCOME The average amount of money earned by each person in a political unit.
GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT (GNP) The total value of all goods and services produced by a country over a year or some other specified period of time.
GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP) The total value of all goods and services produced within a country in a given period of time.
CULTURAL CONVERGENGE The growing similarity between national cultures, including beliefs, values, aspirations; tendency for cultures to become more alike as they interact
CULTURAL ASSIMILATION When a person blends into the surrounding culture; takes on similar beliefs & practices of a culture that was once not their own.
Created by: BHSWG



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