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Chapter 7 LSD&BB

Chapter 7 Life-Span Development of the Brain and Behavior

QuestionAnswer
What is a zygote? The fertilized egg.
What is an ectoderm? The outer cellular layer of the developing fetus, giving rise to the skin and the nervous system.
What is a neural groove? In the developing embryo, the groove between the neural folds.
What is a neural tube? An embryonic structure with subdivisions that correspond to the future forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain.
What is the forebrain? The frontal division of the neural tube, containing the cerebral hemispheres, the thalamus, and the hypothalamus.
What is the midbrain? The middle division of the brain.
What is the hindbrain? The rear division of the brain; in the mature vertebrate, the hindbrain contains the cerebellum, pons and medulla.
What is an embryo? The earliest stage in a developing animal.
What is a fetus? A developing individual after the embryo stage.
What is neurogenesis? The mitotic division of nonneuronal cells to produce neurons.
What is mitosis? The process of division of somatic cells that involves duplication of DNA.
What is the ventricular zone? A region lining the cerebral ventricles that displays mitosis, providing neurons early in developments and glial cells throughout life.
What are cell-cell interactions? The general process during development in which one cell affects the differentiation of other, usually neighboring cells
What is cell migration? The movement of cells from site of origin to final location.
What are radial glial cells? Glial cells that form early in development, spanning the width of the emerging cerebral hemispheres, and guide migrating neurons.
What is a cell adhesion molecule (CAM)? A protein found on the surface of a cell that guides cell migration and/or axonal pathfinding.
What is expression? The process by which a cell makes mRNA transcript of a particular gene.
What is cell differentiation? The developmental stage in which cells acquire distinctive characteristics, such as those of neurons, as the result of expressing particular genes.
What is "in vitro" ? Literally "in glass". usually, in a laboratory dish; outside the body.
What is cell-autonomous? Referring to cell processes that are directed by the cell itself rather than being under the influence of other cells.
What is notochord? A midline structure arising early in the embryonic development of vertebrates.
What is induction? The process by which one set of cells influences the fate of neighboring cells, usually by secreting a chemical factor that changes gene expression in the target cells.
What is regulation? An adaptive response to early injury, as when developing individuals compensate for missing or injured cells.
What is a stem cell? A cell that is undifferentiated and therefore can take on the fate of any cell that a donor organism can produce.
What is process outgrowth? The extensive growth of axons and dendrites.
What is synaptogenesis? The establishment of synaptic connections as axons and dendrites grow.
What is growth cone? The growing tip of an axon or a dendrite.
What is filopodia? Very fine, tubular outgrowths from the growth cone.
What is lamellipodia? Sheetlike extensions of a growth cone.
What is chemoattractants? Compounds that attract particular classes of growth cones.
What is chemorepellants? Compounds that repel particular classes of growth cones.
What is cell death or apoptosis? The developmental process during which "surplus" cells die.
What is death gene? A gene that is expressed only when a cell becomes committed to natural cell death.
What is caspases? A family of proteins that regulate cell death.
What is diablo? A protein released by mitochondria, in response to high calcium levels, that activates apoptosis.
What is inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs)? A family of proteins that inhibit caspases and thereby stave off apoptosis.
What is Bcl-2? A family of proteins that regulate apoptosis.
What is a neurotrophic factor? A target-derived chemical that acts as if it "feeds" certain neurons to help them survive.
What is a nerve growth factor (NGF)? A substance that markedly affects the growth of neurons in a spinal ganglia and in the ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system.
What is neurotrophin? A chemical that prevents neurons from dying.
What is synapse rearrangement? `The loss of some synapses and the development of others; a refinement of synaptic connections that is often seen in development.
What is multiple sclerosis? Literally "many scars"; a disorder characterized by widespread degeneration of myelin.
What is genotype or genome? All the genetic information that one specific individual has inherited.
What is phenotype? The sum of an individual's physical characteristics at one particular time.
What is mutant? An animal carrying a gene that differs from the norm or from the alleles carried by its parents.
What are clones? Asexually produced organisms that are genetically identical.
What are identifiable neurons? neurons that are large and similar from one individual to the next, enabling investigators to recognize them and give them names.
What is amblyopia? Reduced visual acuity that is not caused by optical or retinal impairments.
What is binocular deprivation? Depriving both eyes of form vision, as by sealing the eyelids.
What is the sensitive period? The period during development in which an organism can be permanently altered by a particular experience or treatment.
What is monocular deprivation? Depriving one eye of light.
What is ocular dominance histogram? A graph that portrays the strength of response of a brain neuron to stimuli presented to either the left eye or the right eye.
What is a Hebbian synapse? A synapse that is strengthened when is successfully drives the post-synaptic cell.
What is hypoxia? A transient lack of oxygen.
What is phenylketonuria (PKU)? An inherited disorder of protein metabolism in which the absence of an enzyme leads to a toxic build up of certain compounds, causing mental retardation.
What is down syndrome? Mental retardation that is associated with an extra copy of chromosome 21.
What is fragile X syndrome? A condition that is a frequent cause of inherited mental retardation; produced by a fragile site on the X chromosome that seems prone to breaking because the DNA there is unstable.
What is trinucleotide repeat? Repetition of the same three nucleotides within a gene, which can lead to dysfunction, as in the cases of Huntington's disease and fragile X syndrome.
What is behavioral teratology? The study of impairments in behavior that are produced by embryonic or fetal exposure to toxic substances.
What is fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)? A disorder, including mental retardation and characteristic facial anomalies, that affects children exposed to alcohol during fetal development.
What is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? Syndrome of distractibility, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity which, in children, interferes with school performance.
What is autism? A disorder arising during childhood, characterized by social withdrawal and perserverative behavior.
What is perseverate? To continue to show a behavior repeatedly.
What is asperger's syndrome? Sometimes called high-functioning autism, a syndrome characterized by difficulties in social cognitive processing, usually accompanied by strong language skills.
What is alzheimer's disease? A form of dementia that may appear in middle age but is more frequent among the aged.
What is dementia? Drastic failure of cognitive ability, including memory failure and loss of orientation.
What is senile dementia? A neurological disorder of the aged that is characterized by progressive behavioral deterioration, including personality change and profound intellectual decline. It includes, but is not limited to, Alzheimer's disease.
What are senile plaques? Senile plaques are small areas of the brain that have abnormal cellular and chemical patterns. Correlate with senile dementia.
What is B-amyloid? A protein that accumulates in senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease.
What is neurofibrillary tangle? An abnormal whorl of neurofiliments within nerve cells.
What is tau? A protein associated with neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease.
What is B-secretase? An enzyme that cleaves amyloid precursor protein, forming B-amyloid, which can lead to Alzheimer's disease.
What is presenilin? An enzyme that cleaves amyloid precursor protein, forming B-amyloid, which can lead to Alzheimer's disease.
What is apolipoprotein E (ApoE)? A protein that may help break down amyloid.
Created by: slytherinangel