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CHAPTER 11 - Motivation

motivation the psychological process that arouses, directs, and maintains behavior toward a goal
instinct a complex, inherited behavior pattern characteristic of a species
sociobiology the study of the hereditary basis of human and animal social behavior
drive-reduction theory the theory that behavior is motivated by the need to reduce drives such as sex or hunger
need a motivated state caused by physiological deprivation, such as a lack of food or water
drive a state of psychological tension induced by a need
homeostasis a steady state of physiological equilibrium
incentive an external stimulus that pulls an individual toward a goal
hierarchy of needs Maslow's arrangement of needs in the order of their motivational priority, ranging from physiological needs to the needs for self-actualization and transcendence
set point a specific body weight that the brain tries to maintain through the regulation of diet, activity, and metabolism
obesity an unhealthy condition in men who have more than 25 percent body fat and women who have more than 30 percent body fat
basal metabolic rate the rate at which the body burns calories just to keep itself alive
anorexia nervosa an eating disorder marked by self-starvation
bulimia nervosa an eating disorder marked by binging and purging
gonands the male and female sex glands
sexual response cycle during sexual activity, the phases of excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
sexual dysfunction a chronic problem at a particular phase of the sexual response cycle
sensate focusing a technique, pioneered by Masters and Johnson, in which partners are urged to concentrate on their pleasurable feelings instead of striving for erections and orgasms
gender identity one's self-perceived sex
sexual orientation a person's pattern of erotic attraction to persons of the same sex, opposite sex, or both sexes
arousal motive the motive to maintain an optimal level of physiological activation
Yerkes-Dodson law the principle that the relationship between arousal and performance is best represented by an inverted U-shaped curve
sensory deprivation the prolonged withdrawal of normal levels of external stimulation
sensation seeking the motivation to pursue sensory stimulation
achievement motive the desire for mastery, excellence, and accomplishment
incentive value the perceived rewards that accompany success in a particular area
expectancy the percieved probability of success in a particular area
goal setting the use of goals to increase motivation and improve performance by providing incentives
instrinsic motivation the desire to perform a behavior for its own sake
extrinsic motivation the desire to perform a behavior in order to obtain an external reward, such as praise, grades, or money
overjustificaton theory the theory that an extrinsic reward will decrease intrinsic motivation when a person attributes her or his performance to that reward
cognitive-evaluation theory the theory that a person's intrinsic motivation will increase when a reward is perceived as a source of information but will decrease when a reward is perceived as an attempt to exert control
sport psychology the field that applies psychological principles to help amateur and professional athletes improve their performance
Created by: Jessica C